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PSY 620P January 22, 2015.  Thursday, January 29  Fraley, R. C., Roisman, G. I., & Haltigan, J. D. (2013). The legacy of early experiences in development:

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Presentation on theme: "PSY 620P January 22, 2015.  Thursday, January 29  Fraley, R. C., Roisman, G. I., & Haltigan, J. D. (2013). The legacy of early experiences in development:"— Presentation transcript:

1 PSY 620P January 22, 2015

2  Thursday, January 29  Fraley, R. C., Roisman, G. I., & Haltigan, J. D. (2013). The legacy of early experiences in development: Formalizing alternative models of how early experiences are carried forward over time. Dev Psychol, 49(1), Sunni1 Fraley, R. C., Roisman, G. I., & Haltigan, J. D. (2013). The legacy of early experiences in development: Formalizing alternative models of how early experiences are carried forward over time. Dev Psychol, 49(1),   Adolph, K. E., S. R. Robinson, et al. (2008). "What is the shape of developmental change?" Psychological Review 115(3): Mike1What is the shape of developmental change  Brody, G. H., Chen, Y-F., Murry, V. M., Ge, X., Simons, R. L., Gibbons, F. X., Gerrard, M., & Cutrona, C. E. (2006). Perceived discrimination and the adjustment of African American youths: A five-year longitudinal analysis with contextual moderation effects. Child Development, 77, BreAnne1 Brody, G. H., Chen, Y-F., Murry, V. M., Ge, X., Simons, R. L., Gibbons, F. X., Gerrard, M., & Cutrona, C. E. (2006). Perceived discrimination and the adjustment of African American youths: A five-year longitudinal analysis with contextual moderation effects. Child Development, 77,  Oller DK, Niyogi P, Gray S, Richards JA, Gilkerson J, Xu D, Yapanel U, Warren SF: Automated vocal analysis of naturalistic recordings from children with autism, language delay, and typical development. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2010, 107: Carolyn1 Oller DK, Niyogi P, Gray S, Richards JA, Gilkerson J, Xu D, Yapanel U, Warren SF: Automated vocal analysis of naturalistic recordings from children with autism, language delay, and typical development. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2010, 107:

3  Champagne, F. A., & Mashoodh, R. (2009). Genes in Context Gene– Environment Interplay and the Origins of Individual Differences in Behavior. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18(3), ruthChampagne, F. A., & Mashoodh, R. (2009). Genes in Context Gene– Environment Interplay and the Origins of Individual Differences in Behavior. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18(3),   Shaw, P., Greenstein, D., Lerch, J., Clasen, L., Lenroot, R., Gogtay, N., Evans, A., Rapoport, J., & Giedd, J. (2006). Intellectual ability and cortical development in children and adolescents. Nature, 440, ashley Shaw, P., Greenstein, D., Lerch, J., Clasen, L., Lenroot, R., Gogtay, N., Evans, A., Rapoport, J., & Giedd, J. (2006). Intellectual ability and cortical development in children and adolescents. Nature, 440,   Uddin, L. Q., Supekar, K., & Menon, V. (2013). Reconceptualizing functional brain connectivity in autism from a developmental pe rspective. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7. doi: /fnhum emily Uddin, L. Q., Supekar, K., & Menon, V. (2013). Reconceptualizing functional brain connectivity in autism from a developmental pe rspective. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7. doi: /fnhum   Chen, E., Cohen, S., & Miller, G. E. (2010). How low socioeconomic status affects 2-year hormonal trajectories in children. Psychological Science, 21, kelly Chen, E., Cohen, S., & Miller, G. E. (2010). How low socioeconomic status affects 2-year hormonal trajectories in children. Psychological Science, 21,

4  How is culture transmitted to a developing child?  Emphasis on social mediation Culture Peer Interactions Social Development

5  How are values transmitted via interactions? Culture Peer Interactions Social Development

6  What are some unique aspects of culture transmitted via peer interactions vs. other types of socialization experiences?

7  How is culture transmitted to a developing child?  Emphasis on social mediation Culture Peer Interactions Social Development

8 Culture Socio- emotional development Peer Interactions

9 Chen, Wang, & DeSouza, 2006

10  What are some unique aspects of culture transmitted via peer interactions vs. other types of socialization experiences?

11  Behavioral Inhibition (BI)  tendency to exhibit vigilance, anxiety, and wariness in response to unfamiliar or challenging situations  stable temperamental factor that affects up to 15% of typically developing children (Fox et al., 2005)  Developmental outcomes of BI in North America  in Western cultures, has been associated with socioemotional and school difficulties, social anxiety, and depression

12  Mechanisms leading to negative outcomes?  Caregiver attitudes (e.g., rejection, disapproval)  Responses of caregivers, teachers  Lack of peer acceptance  Negative self-perceptions  Cross-cultural similarities in behavioral patterns  But does BI have same significance in different cultural contexts?

13  Hypotheses  Inhibition will be positively associated with: ▪ Cooperative behavior ▪ Peer integration and social status ▪ Positive school attitudes ▪ School competence  Inhibition will be negatively associated with: ▪ Antagonistic behavior ▪ School problems

14  Measures  2 years  Behavioral Inhibition ▪ Observational paradigm – single composite score ▪ Child plays with toys while mom fills out questionnaire in same room ▪ Clean up ▪ Unfamiliar woman enters, plays with novel toys, and encourages child to join play ▪ Similar situation repeated

15  7 years  Peer Interaction Paradigm (Quartets) ▪ Cooperative Behavior ▪ Antagonistic Behavior  Social Adjustment ▪ Child-rated peer liking ▪ Child-perceived social integration  School Adjustment ▪ School attitudes (child) ▪ School competence (teacher) ▪ Learning problems (teacher) ▪ Distinguished studentship

16 Predictive Associations

17  Study Limitations?  BI has also been linked to higher morning cortisol, higher startle response, and elevated morning cortisol (Degnan, Alams, & Fox, 2010). Are these physiological differences a function of BI or of parental/environmental/cultural responses to BI?  How generalizable do you think the findings are…  At other times (vs )?  To other regions?  What other measures would you collect?

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19  Previous findings suggest ethnic differences within North American sample in relations among harsh parenting and child adjustment?  Proposed mechanism accounting for differences? ▪ Rohner’s (1986) parental acceptance-rejection theory ▪ Grusec and Goodnow’s Framework ▪ What is missing- how culture might affect the way children make these judgments Fig 1; Lansford et al., 2005

20  Criteria used to select participating countries:  Individualistic vs. collectivist orientation  Predominant religious affiliation  Notable legal action involving parental discipline  Historical, ideological, and other distinctions between groups in these countries *Aim was to select groups varying along dimensions affecting parent/child relationships and parental discipline

21  Mothers’ self-reports of own use of physical discipline- similar patterns found for perceptions of normativeness by mothers and children- differed between countries Figure 2, Lansford et al.

22  Is there evidence that normativeness moderates the association between physical discipline and adjustment? Figure 5, Lansford et al.

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24 “In the anthropology literature, there are many examples of parental behaviors that appear to have no detrimental effects on children’s adjustment, despite the perception in other cultural contexts that these behaviors would be harmful to children.” (p. 1242)

25  What additional information would you like to see?

26  Reviews positive influence of peer play on academic and social outcomes for African American preschool children  Previous research mostly on white & middle-income children  Resilience-oriented framework  Developmental ecological theory  Within-group variability  Transactional and bidirectional effects Usher

27  Play dimensions in African American children:  Play interaction  Play disruption  Play disconnection  Resilient Peer Treatment & Evident-based Program for Integrated Curricula Usher Interactive Peer Play Academic/Social- Emotional Outcomes Behavior Problems

28  Social competency in other ethnic groups  Latino subgroups  Asian subgroups  Continued support of positive peer interactions beyond preschool  How does this fit into our current education system? Frechette

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30 Existing scales consider behaviors to be “stable deficits” within children Do not consider whether behaviors vary over different settings Do not tell us when, where and how to intervene Development of the (ASPI) Specifically developed for low income preschool children “Language of preschool teachers, rather than psychiatric terms” 22 developmentally appropriate preschool classroom situations & 2 non- situation specific unusual behavior problems 22 maladaptive behaviors & 22 adaptive behaviors 5 behavioral dimensions: “Phenos”  Externalizing: aggressive, oppositional & hyperactive/inattentive  Internalizing : withdrawn/low-energy & socially reticent Limitations: Didn’t measure impact of multiple contexts in classroom on outcomes Fernandez

31 Goal: To examine the individual and interactional influence of the types of behavioral problems (what) and the situational context(s) in which they occur (where) on children’s developmental outcomes Identified 3 reliable and unique situational dimensions: “Situs” Structured learning Peer Interactions Teacher Interactions N=3,799 Head Start children 4 > 5 year olds Boys > Girls Theoretical Model: developmental-ecological approach  (bioecological systems theory)

32 Problems in Peer Interactions Getting along with peers Behaving in classroom Respect for others’ belongings Reaction to correction Telling the truth Standing in line Problems in Teacher Interactions Talking to teacher General manner with teacher Answering teacher questions Greeting teacher Seeking teacher help Helping teacher with jobs Problems in Structured Learning Involvement in class activities Taking part in games with others Maintaining companions/ friends Paying attention in class Sitting during teacher directed activities Free play/individual choice Working with hands (art) EMOTIONAL & BEHAVIORAL ADJUSTMENT Within Routine Classroom Situations (Situational Needs)

33 Fernandez Unique relationship between situtypes and school readiness outcomes N=747 Hypotheses:  Situational dimensions would contribute unique variance to the prediction of social and learning outcomes  The combined contribution of both situational and behavioral influences would be greater than either set alone Findings:  Peer Social Competencies  Play Disconnection, Disruption & Interaction  Classroom Learning Competencies  Most Importantly  Contribution of structured learning to peer social competency & learning outcomes  Phenos moderate the influence of Situs in the prediction of multiple social and learning competencies

34 Fernandez Implications for Policy & Practice ASPI guides intervention, rather than creating diagnostic labels children are assessed within a “naturalistic context” Developmental-ecological perspective Multiple levels of influence (dynamic transaction):  child behavior (ontogenetic)  & classroom situation (microsystem) Interventions: Goal shift:“fixing the child”  broader systemic approach Identification of “high-frequency” challenging situations and behavior problems (Classroom Management & Intervention Strategies) Professional Development Curriculum

35 Problems in peer interactions directly and indirectly affected play disruption at the end of kindergarten through its effect on play disruption at the end of Head Start Problems in structured learning situations did not directly predict play disconnection but indirectly predicted play disconnection at the end of kindergarten through its effect on play disconnection at the end of Head Start. Fall Head Start Situational Needs Predicting Spring Head Start and Spring Kindergarten Social Competence Bulotsky-Shearer, Dominguez, Bell, Rouse, & Fantuzzo, 2010


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