3 The Universe for Breakfast - Pancake or Oatmeal?? Which describes our Universe best? 1. Pancake: smooth surface but with small differences if you look closely 2. Oatmeal: real “lumps” like galaxies
5 COBE Cosmic Background Explorer COBE took better picture of CMB (Cosmic Microwave Background) Shows some lumpiness that will become galaxies and stars How universe looked 380,000 yrs after BB
6 What is Inflation? Shortly after Big Bang Universe expanded tremendously in very short time Shows how galaxies and stars could be formed from CMB
7 Pulars show evidence of gravitational waves (discovery wins Nobel Prize)
8 Into the Darkness – Dark Matter Matter that gives no visible light – seen with X Rays Dark matter could slow expansion of Universe the distribution of dark matter simulation; dark matter is clustered into halos, connected by filaments
9 Dark Matter videos Minute Physics Minute Physics Through the Wormhole Through the Wormhole
11 Faster Walk on the Dark Side - Dark energy is… a mysterious anti-gravity causing universe expansion to accelerate pushing galaxies apart creating more space Discovered by observations of: visible light, X-ray, radio, and microwaves
12 Dark Energy videos Through the Wormhole Through the Wormhole Science Channel Science Channel
14 Sorting Out Dark Stuff Tells what universe is composed of 4% atoms (normal matter) 23% dark matter (tugs on normal matter with gravity) 73% dark energy (flings everything apart)
15 Seeds of Modern Universe WMAP helps see structure of early Universe WMAP: satellite launched after COBE confirms Big Bang Gives better picture of early universe structure Shows more details of what will become galaxies
17 Journey to Cosmos’ Dark Heart Scientists are working to understand dark energy Using new satellites (Joint Dark Energy Mission) to measure distance between galaxies Will tell how fast galaxies have moved away are moving away
18 What is Future of the Universe?? Will Dark energy rip it apart??
19 Will it reach a limit and collapse, and start again??
22 Cosmic Times 1919 - Confirmation of Einstein’s Theory of Gravity 1929 - Hubble’s discovery of Expanding Universe 1955 - Debate between Big Bang and Steady State 1965 - Discovery of the Cosmic Microwave Background 1993 - COBE Results; Development of Inflation Theory 2006 - Grappling with Dark Energy.
23 Cosmic Times: Scientific Themes Our understanding of the Expansion of the Universe Nature of Supernovae The size and scale of the Universe A number of other themes also appear. Impact of improved technology. Role of Women in early astronomy.
24 Unsung Heroes: Women in Early Astronomy Objectives: The students identify and describe unfamiliar scientist “heroes” that contributed to the field of science up to the year 1929. Summary: identify the women scientists of the Harvard College Observatory use the world wide web to complete a product on one of the these unfamiliar scientific “heroes” that they discovered in their research.
25 A print of this Harvard College Observatory photograph was found in an album that had once belonged to Annie Jump Cannon. These women assisted Pickering in measuring stars and features on the photographic plates. Pickering’s Harem
26 Cosmic Times Posters “Newsletter version” for individual student use
27 Cosmic Times Web Site http://cosmictimes.gsfc.nasa.gov/ 1919 & 1929 Posters and Lessons now Available This presentation is available (with links to lessons) 1955 materials available soon. Sign up for email updates