4“Well-trained and motivated personnel can often ensure high-quality animal care.…”
5Training “hits” 64 Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals 36 Institutional Administrator’s Manual for Laboratory Animal Care and Use35 Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee Guidebook22 Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories17 Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules3 PHS Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals7 Animal Welfare Regulations, 9CFR, Part 3
10The AAALAC International Program Description Describe the training, certification level and type, and experience of animal care personnel.Describe the continuing education opportunities provided to animal care personnel.
11The AAALAC International Program Description Describe the personnel training for specific procedures:use of hazardous agents in animalseducational program(s) to inform personnel about zoonoses, personal hygiene and other occupational health and safety considerations
12The AAALAC International Program Description Describe the personnel training for specific procedures:training and experience of personnel performing surgerytraining and experience required to perform anesthesiatraining and experience of personnel carrying out euthanasia procedures
13Animal care staff Husbandry personnel Supervisory personnel Management personnel
14Animal care staff Veterinarians Veterinary technicians Surgical technicians and support staff
15Animal care staff Technical support staff Research staff providing husbandry
16Assignments may be specific, or one person may wear many hats.
17Types of animal care programs Large versus smallFocused versus diverse
18Training requirements Regulations and guidelinesSpecific species trainingSpecific task training
23Specific species/task training AALAS classes and certifying exams (ALAT, LAT, LATG).AALAS Certified Manager of Animal Resources (CMAR) exams.Institute for Laboratory Animal Management (ILAM) educational program and certification.
24Specific species/ task training Web based trainingTextbooks, videosTraining manuals, SOPsOn job training
25A combination of methods often helps reinforce training and accommodates different types of learners.
26Continuing education/retraining National, district and branch AALAS meetings.Other professional meetings and sponsored seminars (AAALAC, LAMA, SCAW, etc).Reviewing SOPs.Reviewing web-based training.
27Case studiesImmune compromised mice housed in sterile microisolator cages being changed by animal facility personnel on open bench.Animal care staff working in animal rooms in street clothes.Animal care staff dumping cages in dirty cagewash; no dump station in room and no PPE being worn.
29Institutional responsibilities “Each institution should establish and provide resources for an animal care and use program that is managed in accord with this Guide and in compliance with applicable federal, state, and local laws and regulations” . . .Guide for Care & Use of Laboratory Animals
31Organizational structure: university perspective
32IACUC charge“AWRs and PHS Policy require institutions to ensure that people caring for or using animals are qualified to do so.”Guide for Care and Use of Laboratory Animals
33Guide recommendations (personnel qualifications and training) There are a number of options for the training of technicians. Many states have colleges with accredited programs in veterinary technology (AVMA 1995); most are 2-year programs that result in associate of science degrees, and some are 4-year programs that result in bachelor of science degrees. Nondegree training, with certification programs for laboratory animal technicians and technologists, can be obtained from the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science (AALAS). There are commercially available training materials that are appropriate for self-study (Appendix B). Personnel using or caring for animals should also participate regularly in continuing-education activities relevant to their responsibilities. They are encouraged to be involved in local and national meetings of AALAS and other relevant professional organizations. On-the-job training should be part of every technician's job and should be supplemented with institution-sponsored discussion and training programs and with reference materials applicable to their jobs and the species with which they work (Kreger 1995). Coordinators of institutional training programs can seek assistance from the Animal Welfare Information Center (AWIC) and ILAR (NRC 1991). The Guide to the Care and Use of Experimental Animals by the Canadian Council on Animal Care (CCAC 1993) and guidelines of some other countries are valuable additions to the libraries of laboratory animal scientists (Appendix B).
34Guide recommendations (personnel qualifications and training) There are a number of options for the training of technicians. Many states have colleges with accredited programs in veterinary technology (AVMA 1995); most are 2-year programs that result in associate of science degrees, and some are 4-year programs that result in bachelor of science degrees. Non-degree training, with certification programs for laboratory animal technicians and technologists, can be obtained from the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science (AALAS). There are commercially available training materials that are appropriate for self-study (Appendix B). Personnel using or caring for animals should also participate regularly in continuing-education activities relevant to their responsibilities. They are encouraged to be involved in local and national meetings of AALAS and other relevant professional organizations. On-the-job training should be part of every technician's job and should be supplemented with institution-sponsored discussion and training programs and with reference materials applicable to their jobs and the species with which they work (Kreger 1995). Coordinators of institutional training programs can seek assistance from the Animal Welfare Information Center (AWIC) and ILAR (NRC 1991). The Guide to the Care and Use of Experimental Animals by the Canadian Council on Animal Care (CCAC 1993) and guidelines of some other countries are valuable additions to the libraries of laboratory animal scientists (Appendix B).
35Guide recommendations (occupational health & safety of personnel) Personnel should be trained regarding zoonoses, chemical safety, microbiologic and physical hazards (including those related to radiation and allergies), unusual conditions or agents that might be part of experimental procedures (including the use of genetically engineered animals and the use of human tissue in immunocompromised animals), handling of waste materials, personal hygiene, and other considerations (e.g., precautions to be taken during personnel pregnancy, illness, or decreased immunocompetence) as appropriate to the risk imposed by their workplace.
36The organizational structure of universities can make compliance challenging IACUC Focus Group
39Administration Research administrator Academic administrator Focus on compliance (regulatory perspective)Interested in educationAcademic administratorFocus on educationInterested in compliance (academic integrity)
40Principal investigator ProfessorDedicated teacherDedicated to researchBelieves in academic freedomOften believes that regulatory compliance is an obstruction to academic freedom
41Research staff Laboratory manager Laboratory technicians Empowered by the P.I.Directs day to day operation of the labCareer employeeMost knowledgeable of regulationsLaboratory techniciansEntry level positionFrequently have other career aspirationsRegulations learned from lab manager or PIStudent assistantsGaining experience to increase competitiveness for professional schoolNeed to workFollow directionsLeast knowledgeable of regulationsMet the professor once
42Trainees Postdoctoral fellows Graduate students Undergraduate students U.S. citizens & foreign nationalsWell trained in research methodologiesHighly motivatedModerately knowledgeable of regulationsGraduate studentsU.S. citizens and foreign nationalsFocus is on studiesLearning the ropes and pushing the limitsMarginally knowledgeable of regulationsUndergraduate studentsWant to learnNaïveNo knowledge of regulations
44Guide recommendations An occupational health and safety program must be part of the overall animal care and use program (CDC and NIH 1993; CFR 1984a,b,c; PHS Policy). The program must be consistent with federal, state, and local regulations and should focus on maintaining a safe and healthy workplace. The program will depend on the facility, research activities, hazards, and animal species involved. The National Research Council publication Occupational Health and Safety in the Care and Use of Research Animals (NRC In press) contains guidelines and references for establishing and maintaining an effective, comprehensive program (also see Appendix A). An effective program relies on strong administrative support and interactions among several institutional functions or activities, including the research program (as represented by the investigator), the animal care and use program (as represented by the veterinarian and the IACUC), the environmental health and safety program, occupational-health services, and administration (e.g., human resources, finance, and facility-maintenance personnel). Operational and day-to-day responsibility for safety in the workplace, however, resides with the laboratory or facility supervisor (e.g., principal investigator, facility director, or veterinarian) and depends on performance of safe work practices by all employees.
45Building a culture of compliance AdministrationIACUCProfessorsStaffTrainees
46Building a culture of compliance: administrative “buy-in” Research Officer & Academic Officers must understand the importance of compliance.IACUC can be instrumental in educating the administration.
47Building a culture of compliance: IACUC facilitation IACUC should be knowledgeable of the regulations & responsible for advocating best practices to both administrators and professors.“Educate” rather than “Train.”
48Building a culture of compliance: IACUC facilitation
49Building a culture of compliance: professorial “buy-in” Let the Professor Teach.“Educate” rather than “Train.”
50Building a culture of compliance: encouraging professorial “buy-in” Get the students to ask the Professor to teach a course.“Educate” rather than “Train.”
51Building a culture of compliance: encouraging academic administrative “buy-in” Academic affairs will support course development and delivery.“Educate” rather than “Train.”
52Building a culture of compliance: closing the loop Use the Chief Academic Officer to gain support of the President“Educate” rather than “Train.”
53Take home messagesStrict interpretation of the Guide may be not always capture students among those who require training.Goal of training animal users may be accomplished under the academic affairs mission of the university.Resources for training may not have to come from the research office.
55Roadmap Why is IACUC training important? What needs to be included in the training?How do we go about training the IACUC?Resources.
56Why is IACUC training important? Understand responsibilities and importance of the role of the IACUC.Facilitate conduct of required functions.Ensure checks and balances.Distribute responsibilities in the animal care program.Limit regulatory burden.Enhance interactions with investigators.It is required.
57The regulations“It shall be the responsibility of the research facility to ensure that all scientists, research technicians, animal technicians, and other personnel involved in animal care, treatment, and use are qualified to perform their duties…”USDA 2.32(a)
58The regulations“… This responsibility shall be fulfilled in part through the provision of training and instructions to those personnel.”USDA 2.32(a)
59The Guide“Personnel caring for animals should be appropriately trained … and the institution should provide for formal or on-the-job training to facilitate effective implementation of the program and humane care and use of animals.”The Guide, p. 13
60The Guide“It is the institution’s responsibility to provide suitable orientation, background materials, access to appropriate resources, and, if necessary, specific training to assist IACUC members in understanding and evaluating issues brought before the committee.”The Guide, p. 9
61Roadmap Why is IACUC training important? What needs to be included in the training?How do we go about training the IACUC?Resources.
62What should be included in the training? IACUC ProceduresExpectations and responsibilitiesDescription of the Animal Care ProgramProcessesRegulations and PoliciesSemi-annual reviewProtocol reviewReview of concernsSuspend activitiesSpecific IssuesHumane EndpointsPain and DistressJustification of numbers of animalsMany others
63Roadmap Why is IACUC training important? What needs to be included in the training?How do we go about training the IACUC?Resources.
64Approaches to training OrientationOn-goingE optionsPublicationsConferencesCustomized workshops
65Orientation for new members Overview of requirements and expectations.Provide copies ofThe Guide, Animal Welfare Act and Regulations,PHS Policy, & US Government Principles.Institutional policies.Institutional protocol form and written description of this process.Review role of the attending veterinarian, IACUC staff, institutional official, and faculty.
66A continuous process On-going Review specific requirements for both the IACUC and animal welfare concernsInspectionsEnvironmental enrichmentReview institutional policiesYou should have someThey should be reviewed periodicallyUse scenariosLab AnimalIACUC 101
67Electronic materials E options OLAW tutorial grants1.nih.gov/grants/olaw/tutorial/index.htmVA Office of Research and DevelopmentList-servs: IACUC-Forum, CompMed, IACUC TalkE-newsletters: AMP Digest, NABR E-clips
69Conferences IACUC 101 PRIM&R ARENA spring conference AALAS National meetingSCAW’s IACUC-AdvancedSCAW December conferenceState society conferences: NJABR, MiSMR, NCABR, TSBR, and others
70Custom workshops Tailored to your facility. Optimal if a major upheaval in your program.
71Remember Assess the level of need –individualize. Keep training on the front burner.Assess the level of need –individualize.Don’t forget the community representative.Make it easy.
72Roadmap Why is IACUC training important? What needs to be included in the training?How do we go about training the IACUC?Resources.
73Core materials for IACUC training Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, National Research Council. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 1996).Animal Welfare Act as Amended (7 USC, 2131 et.seq.).http://www.aphis.usda.gov/ac/awapdf.pdf.Animal Welfare Regulations, 9 CFR Ch. 1, Subchapter A (1999 edn). Animal and Plant Health inspection Service, USDA.Public Health Service. Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (Washington, DC, 1986).USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Animal Care Policy Manual.
74Core materials for IACUC training Health Research Extension Act of 1985 (P.L ), November 20, 1985-Animals in Research.Interagency Research Animal Committees. U.S. Government Principles for the Utilization and Care of Vertebrate Animals Used in Testing, Research, and Training (Office of Science and Technology Policy, Washington, DC, 1985).Federation of Animal Science Societies. Guide for the Care and Use of Agriculture Animals in Agricultural Research and Teaching (Savoy, IL, 1999).
75Core materials for IACUC training Beaver, B.V. et al Report of the AVMA Panel on Euthanasia. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 218, (2001).Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, National Research Council. Occupational Health and Safety in the Care and Use of Research Animals (National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 1997).ARENA/OLAW Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee Guidebook, 2nd edn (2002).
77Other resources AAALAC International www.aaalac.org The Connection (Winter/Spring 2002 Seeds for a Successful Program: IACUC Training)American Association for Laboratory Animal ScienceAnimal and Plant Health Inspection Service – Animal CareAnimal Welfare Information CenterInformation Resources for Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees1985 – 1999, AWIC Resource Series No. 7,CompMedIACUC 101Sponsored by the Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare and the Applied Research Ethics National Association in conjunction with other partners. Visit
78Other resources IACUC-Forum IACUC-Forum, a closed listserv where issues relating to laboratory animal research may be discussed privately among members of the listserv. Visit for details.IACUC TalkIACUC.ORGIACUC Resource PageOLAW conferencesOLAW’s IACUC GuidebookOLAW’s PHS Policy Tutorial
79Other resources PRIM&R / ARENA annual meeting Public Responsibility in Medicine and Research (PRIM&R) and Applied Research Ethics National Association (ARENA) annual IACUC meeting. Visit“Protocol Review”A monthly column n Lab Animal magazine edited by Jerald Silverman,ArticlesIACUC Training: From New-Member Orientation to Continuing Education. Lab Animal 31: 26, 2002The IACUC HandbookApril 2000, Jerald Silverman, Mark A. Suckow, Sreekant Murthy, CRC Press. $ Visit to order.ResearchTraining.org,
81Agenda Characteristics of ag programs The “Three Tier” approach Ag specific trainingExamples of training materialsCase Studies
82Characteristics of ag programs Most Land Grant Universities & some PharmaVeterinary schools, animal science deptsExperimental stations: remote, isolatedAutonomous, independentHighly skilled technicians and herdsmenMost have ‘been around’ a long timeStudents
83The training approach The Three Tier approach Another tier? #1 OverviewLaws and regs and institutional responsibilities#2 Species specific training#3 “Hands On” trainingAnother tier?… Ag specific training needs
84The objective of Tier 1: overview of ‘Laws and Regs’ Provide a basic understanding …That many laws and regulations exist wrt to research animals.That some of them apply to research agricultural animals.That an appropriate “Animal Care and Use Program” is important!
85The objective of Tier 1: overview of ‘Laws and Regs’ To do:Let them know that training is required (regardless of level of expertise).Set the stage for an environment of compliance.Let them know why compliance is important.
86The Regs! Animal Welfare Act 9CFRUSDA/APHISHistory: Pepper the Dalmatian!Does not cover rats & mice (bred for research) or farm animals used for food or fiberDoes cover farm animals used for teaching or for biomedical researchInstitutional responsibilitiesCode of Federal RegulationsAdministered by USDA, Animal Plant and Health Inspection Service
87Overview: the Regs! Public Health Service Policy Make sure herdsmen understand that:the ‘Policy’ applies to any research institution receiving funding from NIHthe ‘Policy’ applies to all vertebrate animals.
88Overview: the regs! AAALAC Not ‘regulatory’ but ‘voluntary’ Covers all animals in a “Program”But what the heck is a Program???
89The overview: The ‘program’ of animal care and use Provide information on exactly what a “Program” is!Institutional PoliciesStress the importance of Institutional Oversight for animal care and use!Animal Environment, HousingMost Ag folks know about thisTraditional ApproachHow does this apply to Ag Programs?
90The overview: The program of animal care and use Veterinary CareTell them about the roles and responsibilities of the AV!Discuss the importance of teamworkPhysical PlantMay or may not applyTraditional ApproachHow does this apply to Ag Programs?
91The overview: the “Guides” What are the standards? They need to know that there are two “Guides”: The ILAR Guide and the AG GuideThe ILAR Guide:PHS and AAALAC use as a primary reference! Contains guidance on the 4 components of an Animal Care and Use Program mentioned earlier. If get NIH grants, then must be PHS Assured and must follow the ‘Guide’The AG Guide: more formally entitled Guide for Care and Use of Ag Animals in Ag Research and Teaching”Put out by FASSFollows same relative outline as ILAR Guide wrt Institutional PoliciesThen provides species specific guidance, e.g chapters on Beef, Swine, Dairy, Sheep and Goats etc.
93Tier #2 Species specific training SwineDairyBeefSheep and GoatsPoultry
94Tier #2 species modules: content BreedsClassification (species, genus)Nomenclature (freemartin)Uses in researchMain biological characteristicsBehaviorGeneral husbandrySpace requirementsProcurement‘On Arrival’ examinationTechnician responsibilitiesNutritionBasic handling and restraintIdentificationAnimal Health/Common DiseasesEuthanasia
95Tier #2 species modules: the trainer Identified most qualified technician/herdsman per species.Asked him/her to develop the module.Provided presentation skills.That technician became the trainer for that particular species.Trainer presentation skills and efforts were recognized by supervision and reflected on ‘performance management’.
97Tier #3: “Hands On” training Herd health SOP’sDehorningPiglet processingFoot Trimming (all species)CastrationEuthanasia (captive bolt)Heat check for dairyArtificial inseminationRoutine health treatmentsMastitisHypocalcemiaAnemiaFor each module, there is a didactic and a hands on portion. Individuals must demonstrate proficiency in hands on tasks.
98Tier #3: “Hands On” training Research techniquesHandling and restraintBleeding and injection techniquesAnesthesia and analgesiaAseptic techniqueSurgical principlesSpecific surgical proceduresRumen cannulationAbomasal cannulationVascular accessFor each module, there is a didactic and a hands on portion. Individuals must demonstrate proficiency in hands on tasks.
99Ag specific training!!! Zoonoses and biosafety Recognition of pain and distress in ag animalsAg animal environmental enrichmentNecropsy room safety
100Readily available training FASS Training Federation of Animal Science Societies (www.fass.org)Beef CattleDairy CattleSwine TrainingHorse TrainingAg Guide
101Available video tapes National Institute Animal Agriculture (NIAA) Swine Handling and TransportCattle Handling and TransportUnderstanding Dairy Cattle Behavior to Improve Handling and Transport
102Lots of other sources of training material … AAALASNational Practitioner OrganizationsAABP, AASV, AADP….National Producer OrganizationsNational Cattleman’s Beef AssociationTemple Grandin (www.grandin.com)American Farm BureauAVMAAWICLand Grant University agricultural program websitesPractitioner Org’sAABP: Mastitis, Bovine EuthanasiaAASP: Practical Euthanasia, Foreign Animal Disease, Guidelines for Tx use of antimicrobial, Swine DiseasesNCBA: Animal Welfare, Food Safety
103Case study #1 Large Land Grant University, USA Mandatory: inadequate veterinary careProblem: an inadequate understanding of:the role of the veterinarian in research,the regulations and how they are applied to agricultural researchand what constitutes an ‘animal care and use program”Solution (in part): Tier #1 training
104Case study #2: Large Land Grant University, USA Mandatory: lack of or inadequate personnel trainingProblem: long term very experienced herdsmen who do not understand the need for trainingSolution:Tier #1 trainingTier #2 trainingHerdsman as “the trainer”
105Case study #3 Land Grant University, USA Mandatory: inappropriate euthanasia (swine, cattle)Problem: lack of understanding of appropriate euthanasia techniquesSolutionTier #3: SOP discussion and hands on training for euthanasia techniques (electrocution, carbon dioxide, captive bolt..)
108Industry’s unique challenges Slides prepared by:Michael Ballinger, DVM, DACLAMDirector, Global Animal Resources, AmgenPresident, Council on Accreditation, AAALAC International
109What is “industry” Vendors Contract Research Organizations (CRO) Biotech companiesPharmaceutical/vaccine companiesThe challenges vary with various industry sectors
110Industry environment/challenges Generally risk averse.Business model includes regulatory compliance (FDA, EPA, OECD, ISO, DOD).Business model includes accreditation, (AAALAC International).Cost/benefit ratio analysis evaluated for programs.Must have business case for education & training.
111Business case for training Is it mandated by law or regulation?Will it protect the company’s resources?Will it make us more competitive?Will it improve the data?How important is it for the company to project competence?How important is it to convey that animal welfare is important?
112Training by job category IACUC member training.Animal care staff training.Research & science staff training.Personnel at risk for research hazards.Awareness/training of the companies “rank and file.”
113IACUC training Animal Welfare Act compliance sells need. 1996 Guide provides specific expectation.Support for regular travel to IACUC conferences is generally available.Many organizations now “bring the trainers in” to maximize return on investment.
114Animal care staff training Well defined training programs are common.Documentation often excellent, especially if GLP.AALAS certification often endorsed and financially supported.May be requirement for advancement.ILAM & CMAR support is common.
115Training for science staff Business case not as obvious.“Qualified” versus “Trained.”Who is ultimately responsible for qualification of research staff?What cost center should support it?IACUC may demand “demonstration of proficiency” but should they require training?
116Environmental health and safety training Strong business case for adequate occupational health & safety resources.Strong business case for hazard abatement.Formal courses readily available.Combining animal use training with other required training (i.e. EHS) will increase efficiency and may increase effectiveness.
117GLP versus non-GLPGLP animal users take training very seriously, but focus is not animal welfare.Well-documented.Humane issues not always a key component.FDA assumes adequate animal care/welfare.USDA focus on welfare, not on study design.Mandate and oversight comes from GLP compliance (QA) organization, not IACUC.
118Research and non-GLPCompany culture may hinder new demands for mandated training and especially “needless documentation.”Perhaps an over reaction to “GLP’s don’t apply here.”Procedural training with humane focus evolved long after GLP’s in most companies.
119Industry examples of approaches Risk-based prioritization for hands-on training and/or proficiency demonstration.Concentrate on recognizing pain/distress and reporting problems.Track proficiencies in a central training record.Internal awareness programs for “rank and file” “culture of care” (Aventis, Charles River).Integrated Needs-Based Training Programs— Attend Seminar tomorrow 8:00 am!!