Presentation on theme: "SELF-REGULATED STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT (SRSD) INSTRUCTION Harris, K, Graham, S, Mason, L. & Friedlander, B. (2008). Powerful writing strategies for all students."— Presentation transcript:
SELF-REGULATED STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT (SRSD) INSTRUCTION Harris, K, Graham, S, Mason, L. & Friedlander, B. (2008). Powerful writing strategies for all students. Baltimore, MD: Brookes.
The challenge of helping struggling writers Generating content: Struggling writers do not know how to access what they know in writing They do not have as much difficulty when given the opportunity to “say” rather than “write” what they know Making revisions Less than 20% of revisions made by struggling writers change the original text Revisions tend to focus on word substitution, mechanical errors, or a neater product because these “rules” are concrete and accessible.
Why do students struggle? Struggling writers do not respond to the abstract terms that are a part of the writing process (brainstorm, plan, draft, and revise), even though they have received writing instruction.
Philosophy of the strategy Provides struggling writers with specific, concrete strategies Helps students by providing concrete models for “what has to happen in the mind”
Review of research supporting SRSD Over 40 studies using the SRSD model of instruction have been reported (elementary through high school) Significant findings in four main aspects of student performance: Quality of writing Knowledge of writing Approach to writing Self-efficacy Meaningful improvements found with average-to-better writers, as well as students who score at or below the 25 th percentile on writing measures Research based practice according to CEC’s Evidence Based Practices Identification Criteria
“Pros” of the strategy Little to no start up cost Materials readily available “transparency” of the materials Systematic, explicit, and consistent implementation strategy for teaching
“Cons” of the strategy Sheer number of strategies Newness of strategy; many teachers may be unfamiliar with approach Does not specifically teach mechanics of writing
Wide range of students from “average-to-better” writers, as well as students who score at or below the 25 th percentile on writing measures Can be effective in one-to-one, small group, or inclusive classroom instructional setting Target audience
Assessment is integrated in steps of implementation: Stage 1: Develop background knowledge (can assess preskills here) Stage 2: Discuss it Stage 3: Model it (think alouds) Stage 4: Memorize it Stage 5: Support it (use scaffolding; critical and longest stage) Sage 6: Independent performance (goal: “covert” self-instruction) Student assessment prior to implementation
Overview of types of SRSD strategies Word choice Vocabulary enrichment Story writing POW + WWW POW + C-SPACE Narrative, expository, and persuasive writing POW + TREE STOP and DARE Report writing Plans Revising REVISE Peer Revising Writing for a competency tests PLAN & WRITE Reading and writing informational text TWA + PLANS
One example POW + WWW Strategy for story writing m m
Compare/contrast elements of the strategy with class 6 stages Provides Strategies to support this Variety of Strategies to Teach different writing skills Provided for In stages and specific strategies
Monitoring student progress Students self evaluate (written products) Assess changes in student writing behavior, attitudes, and cognition Lessons in book include assessment (teacher, student) Assess before (cognition) During (process) After (final product, portfolio, benchmarks)
Addressing learning differences Attention: Embedded in model, specific emphasis on scaffolding during stage 5 (support) Spatial and sequential processing: Embedded in model Language: Use very specific language during modeling stage Memory: Embedded in model (allow extended use of strategy rather than memorization); book marks, etc. higher order thinking: Embedded in model Motor skills: Consultation with OT, HWWT, assistive technology
Additional resources Interactive tutorial at: Graham, S. & Harris, K. (2005) Writing Better: Effective strategies for teaching students with learning difficulties. Baltimore, MD: Brookes Strategy instruction website at: