Presentation on theme: "How do you feel?. Sometimes you feel in love… …..Her dress, on that day, was of the most noble color……..At that moment, I say most truly that the spirit."— Presentation transcript:
How do you feel?
Sometimes you feel in love…
…..Her dress, on that day, was of the most noble color……..At that moment, I say most truly that the spirit of life, which hath its dwelling in the secretest chamber of the heart, began to tremble so violently that the least pulses of my body shook therewith…At that moment the natural spirit, which dwelleth where our nourishment is administered, began to weep, and in weeping said these words: "Alas! How often shall I be disturbed from this time forth…… From La Vita Nova (The New Life) by Dante Alighieri ( ) Translation by Dante Gabriele Rossetti ( )
The Limbic System Chapter 8
A limbus is a margin or border and the limbic system is a border zone where psychiatry meets neurology
Correlation Between Neuronal Activity and EEG Alpha Power Mid brain Hypothalamus Amygdala Limbic Cortex Emotional State Correlates with alpha rhythm in the limbic system
Limbic Regions that Register Emotion
R.J. Dolan, Science, 8 Nov, 2002 Brain Regions Implicated in the Emotional Experience
Inputs to the Amygdala
What Does the Amygdala Do With the Information From These Brain Regions? Maintains vigilance that is evoked by associative ambiguity or unfamiliar stimuli Vigilance increases information gathering and processing Judges causal relationships between biologically relevant stimuli Most often, it generates a fear response
Vigilance and emotion are not so much entities that reside within the amygdala as they are processes set in motion by amygdala activation.
Inputs & Outputs
“I feel fear!” Snakes or thieves…it doesn’t make any difference
Outputs: Amyloid function also influences processing within the cortex
Stimuli that Activate the Amygdala in Humans Aversive films, pictures, odors & tastes Fearful or happy facial expressions Masked fearful facial expressions Visual cues that predict electric shock Neutral faces that predict aversive noise Sad and happy faces
Amygdala Activation in Social Phobics: fMRI Study Strong odor equally activates amygdala in controls & phobics Neutral faces produce enhanced amygdala activation in social phobics Amygdala provides emotional coloring
Individuals with social phobias demonstrated exaggerated amygdala responses to neutral facial expressions but they reported that these expressions did not make them "feel" more afraid!
Infants with an inhibited temperament tend to develop into children who avoid people, objects, and situations that are novel or unfamiliar, whereas uninhibited children spontaneously approach novel persons, objects, and situations. Adults who had been categorized in the second year of life as inhibited, compared with those previously categorized as uninhibited, show greater functional MRI signal response within the amygdala to novel versus familiar faces. Schwartz et al., Science, June 20, 2003.
Males show greater activation of the amygdala in response to sexually explicit images than do females. Hamann et al., Nature Neurosci. March, 2004
Amygdala sends Inputs to the anterior cingulate gyrus
Loss of inhibition?
rCBF as amount of chocolate increases from a little to too much
CNS Asymmetry Studies involving brain damaged patients and functional imaging techniques have both revealed that, in general, the right hemisphere tends to play a greater role in emotional behaviors
Patients with bilateral amygdala damage completely lose their ability to perceive emotions related to fear; some lose their ability to perceive other emotions; and some suffer from no apparent dysfunction at all!
STENDHAL SYNDROME Stendhal syndrome or Stendhal's syndrome is a psychosomatic illness that causes rapid heartbeat, dizziness, confusion and even hallucinations when an individual is exposed to art. psychosomatic illnessconfusionhallucinationsart It is named after the famous 19th century French author Stendhal (pseudonym of Marie-Henri Beyle), who described his experience with the phenomenon during his 1817 visit to Florence, Italy.19th centuryFrenchauthor Stendhal 1817FlorenceItaly Although there are many descriptions of people becoming dizzy and fainting while taking in Florentine art, especially at the Uffizi, dating from the early 19th century on, the syndrome was only named in 1979, when it was described by Italian psychiatrist Graziella Magherini, who observed and described more than 100 similar cases among tourists and visitors in Florence..Uffizi19th century1979Graziella Magherini