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Understanding the Reading Process 1. Understanding the Reading Process Today we will be looking at... Strategies used by fluent readers Phonics Language.

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Presentation on theme: "Understanding the Reading Process 1. Understanding the Reading Process Today we will be looking at... Strategies used by fluent readers Phonics Language."— Presentation transcript:

1 Understanding the Reading Process 1

2 Understanding the Reading Process Today we will be looking at... Strategies used by fluent readers Phonics Language Experience Approach Social Sight Vocabulary Dolch List How to support learners Some Do’s and Dont’s 2

3 What does reading involve? Reading involves a number of skills – we do most of them automatically, so maybe you’re not aware of them 3

4 Strategies used by fluent readers Look at illustrations or headlines before starting to read, to activate background knowledge Scan for particular information Read for meaning - re-read parts that don’t make sense 4

5 Strategies used by fluent readers Read carefully when needed, or scanning otherwise Skip over difficult words and read on to keep the meaning alive – it’s easily lost if you stop too often Guess at new words (using phonics and context), trying to find words that fit with the meaning of the text as a whole. 5

6 How do we deal with an unfamiliar word? When faced with a threatening situation, his palms exsensudate and his heart beats faster. 6

7 How do we deal with an unfamiliar word? Skip it? Guess from context? Try sounding it out? Look it up? Ask someone for help? 7

8 ~Phonics~ 8

9 Phonics Phonics is the method of teaching reading which makes learners aware of the connection between the letters and the sounds they make. 26 letters and 44 phonemes 9

10 Phonics - Why? The traditional “look and say” method had a lot of limitations Memorising whole words doesn’t work – our memory can only handle about 2,000 – 3,000 words (and we’ll know this many by about age 12) Which is easier – memorise 20,000 words (your average daily vocabulary) or just over 100 sound pictures? 10

11 Phonics – What? Letters are pictures of sounds that the learner already knows. Sometimes two or more letters work together to make a sound (e.g. ch) Sometimes a sound is represented in more than one way – e.g. green, team, happy. 11

12 Phonics – How? Start by raising awareness of the sounds that make up common words. Letters don’t ‘say’ anything or ‘mean’ anything. Change your phrasing – instead of What does the letter say? Try What do we say when we see that letter? 12

13 Start by raising awareness of the sounds that make up common words.  Start simple, with one letter sound pictures & start with the ones your learner knows.  Then, move onto blends  Use plenty of games!!  Keep it fun!! 13

14 Even when we know and understand all the words we still may not grasp the meaning of a piece of text. 14

15 ~Language Experience Approach~ 15

16 Language Experience Open Ended Questions: What? Where? Why? When? How? 16

17 Language Experience Approach  Explain that you will write down some things the learner says...ask open ended questions such as what, where, why, when, how?  Allow time for discussion.  When learner has a few ideas and sentences, write them down one at a time. 17

18 Language Experience Approach  Read the sentences back to learner and ask if he/she would like to change anything.  Do not change grammar or syntax unless learner suggests the change.  Write the sentences clearly in lower case, on a clean page, breaking it into lines. 18

19 Language Experience Approach For example: I’m going to Killarney To the Gleneagles for a week With the ballroom dancing We go for a holiday There is about three hundred people go We take over the hotel for a week Now what do we do with it?? 19

20 Language Experience Approach  Read the first sentence to the learner pointing out each word as you go.  Ask the learner to read the sentence with you, still pointing to each word.  When learner is confident, ask him/her to read it alone – point to each word until you think he/she can manage alone. 20

21 Language Experience Approach  Repeat this for the second sentence, but only if learner seems confident.  Repeat these steps until learner can read the entire text with confidence. Then What? 21

22 Paired Reading Read the piece to learner first and then read together. After a few read-throughs, let your voice fade away, only coming back if the learner gets into difficulty. Review words that caused difficulty. When you’re looking at a problem word, read back to look for clues and then ask the student what they think the word is. Draw attention to any helpful feature – maybe another similar word or part of one – pointing out patterns can be a big help 22

23 23 ~ Social Sight Vocabulary ~

24 What is Social Sight Vocabulary? A stock of easily recognisable words that your learner processes easily Choose words that are: Part of the learner’s vocabulary Of interest to the learner Necessary for work Useful for shopping, health & safety, recreation, etc. 24

25 25 Taken from

26 Social Sight Vocabulary – Why? Helps your learner build up a collection of words that can be recognised instantly This makes the reading process less laborious Practise makes perfect! The more often the learner sees a word, they sooner it will become a sight word. 26

27 Social Sight Vocabulary – How? Teach a few sight words in each session, initially taken from language experience pieces. Say each word clearly and use it in a sentence or ask the learner to put it in a sentence and write down the sentence. Write it on a card and ask the learner to repeat it several times Keep the cards – why not start a file? Mix the cards up and ask the learner to pick out a word you say 27

28 Social Sight Vocabulary – How? Review the words regularly, in games and activities and puzzles or wordsearches. The Dolch list words are essential sight words. “The Dolch Word List is a list of frequently used words compiled by Edward William Dolch, PhD, a major proponent of the "whole- word" method of beginning reading instruction. The list was prepared in The list was originally published in his book ”Problems in Reading” in 1948.” - Wikipedia 28

29 THE DOLCH LIST Taken from One quarter of all that we read consists of the following 12 words: aitandofhethat iTheintoiswas 29

30 If you add the next 20 words, you’ve covered one third of all reading AllAreAsAtBe ButForHadHaveHim HisNotOnOneSaid SoTheyWeWithYou 30

31 Add another 68 words and you’re up to half of all reading AboutAnBackBeenBeforeBigByCallCameCan ComeCouldDidDoDownFirstFromGetGoHas HerHereIfIntoJustLikeLittleLookMadeMake MoreMeMuchMustMyNewNoNowOffOld OnlyOrOtherOurOutOverRightSeeSheSome TheirThemThenThereThisTwoUpWantWellWent WereWhatWhenWhereWhichWhoWillYour Being able to recognise these 100 words enables students to cope with a wide range of reading material. 31

32 So what do we need to do as tutors? Set up our classes and materials in a way that supports our learners Start with what they know already Help learners become aware of the links between sounds, letters and words – PHONICS Help them develop a good basic sight vocabulary Ensure that they have a range of strategies for decoding unfamiliar words, and for adding new words to their vocabulary Make sure they understand what they’re reading and that they learn to check their own understanding of what they’re reading. 32

33 DON’T...  Give material too advanced/difficult.  Jump in too quickly.  Make learner sound out every word.  Dwell on unsuccessful words.  Tackle too many new/tricky words in a session 33

34 DON’T...  Use the same material over and over.  Expect your learner to enjoy what you like to read.  Make reading a chore.  Ask learner to read lists of words – keep things relevant to real life. 34

35 DO...  Encourage learner to read to the end of a sentence.  Give time to attempt each sentence.  Encourage reading for meaning.  Help learner scan the text to “get the gist” and for difficult words, before reading. 35

36 DO...  Highlight successes  Use a variety of reading material.  Encourage reading in phrases and sentences.  Find ways to make reading fun! 36

37 Don’t forget - For a beginner, a key skill is the confidence to give it a try, confidence to sound things out, confidence to try out new approaches to long words. Often this involves breaking very old habits – it’s vital that your learner feels safe to try things out and has a range of strategies at their fingertips 37

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