Presentation on theme: "Independent Reading: From Research to Practice. FACTS ABOUT LITERACY IN CALIFORNIA *California is ranked low in reading based on the NAEP 4th grade scores."— Presentation transcript:
Independent Reading: From Research to Practice
FACTS ABOUT LITERACY IN CALIFORNIA *California is ranked low in reading based on the NAEP 4th grade scores. 21% of 4th grade students are considered proficient or better in reading skills(2002). (National Assessment of Educational Progress, , 2002, 2006).
*Trends affecting literacy development in California: California ranks near the bottom in school library holdings. -California ranks next to last in books per pupil in its elementary school libraries. 13 books per child in California compared to the national average of 18. California ranks last in school librarians per pupil Average number of students per school librarian USA: 953 to 1 (2001) California: 4,459 to 1 (2002)
School Library Expenditures: USA (1993-4) $17.18 CA ( ) $ 7.26 CA ( ) $ 1.51 Lance (2002) and McQuillan (1998), noted the quality of school libraries has a direct and powerful impact on reading achievement scores.
California's public libraries have been decimated over the past decade, with children's services being the hardest hit area. Most literate cities study by University of Wisconsin (2004): For public library quality L.A. ranked 73 out of 79 cities Sacramento, Santa Ana & Anaheim ranked 76, 78, 79
California ranked near the bottom (40th) in per pupil expenditures in the U.S. California now ranks in the bottom eight of the country in terms of percentage of children ages 5-17 living in poverty. USA , 17.8% CA , 22.3 % (rank 43rd)
Sources: Shin, F. and Krashen, S Summer Reading. Boston, MA. Pearson, Allyn and Bacon. McQuillan, J The Literacy Crisis. Heinemann. Krashen, S Power of Reading. Heinemann. White, H “School library collections and services: Ranking the states,” School Library Media Quarterly, 19, National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Educational Statistics, (U.S. Department of Education, 2001). Table 422. Statistics about California School Libraries:
Reading as a leisure activity is the best predictor of reading skills
Free voluntary reading results in better: Reading comprehension Writing style Vocabulary Spelling Grammatical development
Summary of the research on vocabulary development “More reading increases vocabulary development” (R.C. Anderson, 1996): Found small but highly reliable increments in word knowledge attributable to reading at all grade and ability levels. Likelihood of learning an unfamiliar word while reading was about 1 in 20. The likelihood increased to 1 in 10 when children were reading easy narratives to near zero when they were reading difficult expositions.
Anderson, Wilson, and Fielding (1988): Average U.S. fifth grader reads about 600,000 words a year from books, magazines, and newspapers outside of school. If a student reads 15 minutes a day in school, another 600,000 words of text could be covered. Therefore, a conservative estimate of the total volume of reading of a typical fifth grader in the U.S. is 1 million or more words per year Estimated that a child who reads 1 million words a year will encounter 20,000 unfamiliar words.
With a 5% chance of learning a word, 1,000 words a year from reading may be learned. When self selected or assigned material is not too difficult, the chances of learning an unfamiliar word rise to 10% or more….and yearly that is 2,000 words. Note: These are figures for average readers. Avid readers may be learning two or three times as many words simply from reading.
Nagy and Herman(1987): Found in typical classroom 300 words a year, at most, are covered in direct instruction aimed specifically at word learning. Conclusion: even in an ideal program of vocabulary instruction, the number of words actually learned in a year will still be in the hundreds. In contrast, the number of words learned in a year from independent reading is in the thousands for the typical child.
Conclusion: Independent reading appears to be a far more important source of vocabulary growth than direct vocabulary instruction.
Oral Language and vocabulary growth Oral language is primary for young children, and continues to be important throughout life. Oral language is not the primary source for vocabulary growth when a child has become a fluent and frequent reader. Reason: conversation and popular television shows do not contain a sufficiently rich vocabulary to allow for growth (natural conversation). Conclusion: At least one-third, and maybe two-thirds, of the typical child’s annual vocabulary growth comes as the natural consequence of reading books, magazines, and newspapers. Reading aloud is different when there is a discussion and shared book approach (vocabulary from book is richer).
References: Anderson, R. C. (1996). Research foundations to support wide reading. In V. Creany (Ed.), Promoting Reading in Developing Countries (pp ). Newark, DE: International Reading Association. Anderson, R. C., Wilson, P. T., & Fielding, L. G. (1988). Growth in reading and how children spend their time outside of school. Reading Research Quarterly, 23, Nagy, W. E., & Herman, P. A. (1987). Breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge: Implications for acquisition and instruction. In M. McKeown & M. Curtis (Eds.), The nature of vocabulary acquisition (pp ). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Free voluntary reading results in better: Reading comprehension Writing style Vocabulary – Torl Spelling Grammatical development
The benefits of comic books Reading one comic book a week would mean reading 100,000 words a year. The vocabulary in comics can be complex. Library use increased when comic books were available. Comic books lead to other reading Texts of comics are linguistically appropriate and pictures make it comprehensible.
Comic book texts can be complex “The Psycho-Man has a vast technology at his command, darling, but he had traditionally used it to only one end: to manipulate emotions. Everything he does is designed to create conflicting, confusing emotional stimuli for his intended victims.” (The Fantastic Four, no. 283, 1985, p.21) (Source: Krashen,1993, Power of Reading. p. 52).
Reading level of some comic books (1978). Title Grade level- readability average Archie # Batman # The Incredible Hulk #745.5 Superman # Bugs Bunny # Star Wars #166.1 Mighty Mouse #532.4 Source: G. Wright (1979). “The Comic Book: A Forgotten Medium in the Classroom” Reading Teacher. 33.
Summer Reading Program Objectives of the 6 week program 1. Demonstrate how independent (or self- selected) reading can be effective in the classroom. 2. Provide access to interesting reading materials (popular books and magazines). 3. Motivate students to read (at home as well as in school) and promote a more positive attitude towards reading.
Summer school day (4 hours daily) 25 minutes library time for daily access to books (also independent reading during this time). 90 minutes of Independent Reading (during this time individual conferences are held) 45 minutes of literature-based or “guided reading” instruction 45 minutes of project activity (book publishing, book posters, newspaper publishing) 20 minutes of read aloud, paired reading, or shared reading activity
Unedited comments from students This summer school reading rogram is great. It has improved my reading alot. The best part of this program is the there were alot of Goose-Bumps to read. After you read some books, you get books free. Now, it has made me like reading more. I think that we had good books to read. I think they should have this program every summer. This program has done me a lot of good. I would want to comeback if they are gong to have this program agine. This summer school has got me more in to reading than I ever imangin. I start likeing R. l Stine, Goosebumps, and bady Sitter's club. I even start reading the newspaper. I know now how fun reading is. Summer school was great I had fun. The things I liked about summer school was Reading the books and stuff. Well at first I didn't like to Read like fear street ones. Maybe I will even Read at home to. May be I'll come back next year. I think this summer school program was okay because of the reading. They made me read alot and after a while I had the most books read in my class. I think I'll come back next year. I think I learn much in the progran. My mom said you read batter then I was reading before. My mom proud of me.
This is what I like about summer school is because you. Get to read books when you have free time and you get. To pick your very on book you wont to read. In your teacher can help you when you wont help. thats what I like. Summer school was great I had fun. The things I liked about summer school was Reading the books and stuff. Well at first I didn’t like to Read like fear street ones. Maybe I will even Read at home to. May be I’ll come back next year. I thought this program is great now I’m not so lazy any more like I used to be. Now I read all the tine this program help me and others a hole lot. This yare in summer school, I thouht the best part was when we went outside and read. I liked it because we got to cool of and have fun at the same time. Iliked my teacher as well she is a great teacher, and I think you should keep her next year. Thank you
Daily Reading Log Student's Name_____________________ Date TitleCommentsTeacher
Book Record Student's Name: ________________________Date: _____________ Title: ___________________________________________ Author: ___________________________Genre:_________________ I would rate this book (circle one number): Awful Okay Excellent Comments or thoughts (optional): Teacher's signature__________________________
Stages of Reading Development (Leonhardt, 1993) 1. Leafing through books and magazines 2. Reading comics, magazines and newspapers 3. The first book (first book in a series) 4. Very narrow reading (Goosebumps, Captain Underpants) 5. Branching out – slowly (teacher encouragement) 6. Wider reading 7. Independently finding books