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Table of Contents Exit Psychological Disorders Marina Sangkavichai.

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1 Table of Contents Exit Psychological Disorders Marina Sangkavichai

2 Table of Contents Exit  As a counselor/psychologist, how would you help someone overcome their fear of public speaking? If you have this fear, how would you take steps to become a polished and effective speaker?

3 Table of Contents Exit  Psychopathology: Scientific study of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders  Subjective Discomfort: Feelings of anxiety, depression, or emotional distress  Social Nonconformity: Disobeying societal standards for normal conduct; usually leads to destructive or self- destructive behavior

4 Table of Contents Exit  Situational Context: Social situation, behavioral setting, or general circumstances in which an action takes place ◦ Is it normal to walk around strangers naked? If you are in a locker room and in the shower area, yes!  Cultural Relativity: Judgments are made relative to the values of one’s culture

5 Table of Contents Exit Fig. 16.2 This MRI scan of a human brain (viewed from the top) reveals a tumor (dark spot). Mental disorders sometimes have organic causes of this sort. However, in many instances no organic damage can be found. © Scott Camazine/Photo Researchers

6 Table of Contents Exit  Maladaptive Behavior: Behavior that makes it difficult to function, to adapt to the environment, and to meet everyday demands  Those with mental illness lose the ability to adequately control thoughts, behaviors, or feelings

7 Table of Contents Exit  Psychotic Disorder: Severe psychiatric disorder characterized by hallucinations and delusions, social withdrawal, and a move away from reality/For example, schizophrenia, bipolar disorders may have features of psychosis

8 Table of Contents Exit  Mood Disorder: Disturbances in mood or emotions, like depression or mania  Anxiety Disorder: Feelings of fear, apprehension, anxiety, and behavior distortions

9 Table of Contents Exit  Social Conditions: Poverty, homelessness, overcrowding, stressful living conditions, lack of social support, social isolation  Family Factors: marital or relationship problems  Psychological Factors:, stress, traumatic experiences  Biological Factors: Genetic defects or inherited vulnerabilities; poor prenatal care, head injuries, exposure to toxins, chronic physical illness, or disability

10 Table of Contents Exit  Biolological: it is a physical disorder caused by a structural or biochemical abnormality in the brain, by genetic inheritance, or by infection.  Biopsychosocial: it is a combination of biological, psychological, and social causes  Psychodynamic: stems from early childhood experiences and unresolved, unconscious sexual or aggressive conflicts  Learning: abnormal thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are learned and sustained like any other behaviors or there is a failure to learn appropriate behaviors  Cognitive: faulty thinking or distorted perceptions can cause psychological disorders

11 Table of Contents Exit  Definition: A legal term; refers to an inability to manage one’s affairs or to be aware of the consequences of one’s actions ◦ Those judged insane (by a court of law) are not held legally accountable for their actions ◦ Can be involuntarily committed to a psychiatric hospital ◦ Some movements today are trying to abolish the insanity plea and defense; desire to make everyone accountable for their actions ◦ How accurate is the judgment of insanity?  Expert Witness: Person recognized by a court of law as being qualified to give expert testimony on a specific topic ◦ May be psychologist, psychiatrist, and so on

12 Table of Contents Exit  Definition: A person who lacks a conscience (superego?); typically emotionally shallow, impulsive, selfish, and manipulative toward others ◦ Oftentimes called psychopaths or sociopaths  Many are delinquents or criminals, but many are NOT crazed murderers displayed on television  Create a good first impression and are often charming/entertainers, politicians, cheat their way through life!  Cheat their way through life

13 Table of Contents Exit  Possible Causes: ◦ Childhood history of emotional deprivation, neglect, and physical abuse ◦ Underarousal of the brain ◦ Many murderers have antisocial personality disorder, lack or remorse, tortured animals  Very difficult to effectively treat; will likely lie, charm, and manipulate their way through therapy

14 Table of Contents Exit Fig. 16.3 Using PET scans, Canadian psychologist Robert Hare found that the normally functioning brain (left) lights up with activity when a person sees emotion-laden words such as “maggot” or “cancer.” But the brain of a psychopath (right) remains inactive, especially in areas associated with feelings and self- control. When Dr. Hare showed the bottom image to several neurologists, one asked, “Is this person from Mars?” (Images courtesy of Robert Hare.) © Robert Hare

15 Table of Contents Exit  Anxiety: Feelings of apprehension, dread, or uneasiness ◦ Usually suffer sleep disturbances, irritability, and depression ◦ Examples: Grief reactions, lengthy physical illness, unemployment, panic attacks, phobias

16 Table of Contents Exit  Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): Duration of at least six months of chronic, unrealistic, or excessive anxiety  Free-Floating Anxiety: Anxiety that is very general and persuasive

17 Table of Contents Exit  Panic Disorder (without Agoraphobia): A chronic state of anxiety with brief moments of sudden, intense, unexpected panic (panic attack) ◦ Panic Attack: Feels like one is having a heart attack, going to die, or is going insane ◦ Symptoms include vertigo, chest pain, choking, fear of losing control  Panic Disorder (with Agoraphobia): Panic attacks and sudden anxiety still occur, but with agoraphobia

18 Table of Contents Exit  Agoraphobia (with Panic Disorder): Intense, irrational fear that a panic attack will occur in a public place or in an unfamiliar situation ◦ Intense fear of leaving the house or entering unfamiliar situations ◦ Can be very crippling ◦ Literally means fear of open places or market (agora)  Agoraphobia (without Panic Disorder): Fear that something extremely embarrassing will happen away from home or in an unfamiliar situation

19 Table of Contents Exit  Irrational, persistent fears, anxiety, and avoidance that focus on specific objects, activities, or situations  People with phobias realize that their fears are unreasonable and excessive, but they cannot control them

20 Table of Contents Exit  Intense, irrational fear of being observed, evaluated, humiliated, or embarrassed by others (e.g., shyness, eating, or speaking in public)

21 Table of Contents Exit  Extreme preoccupation with certain thoughts and compulsive performance of certain behaviors  Obsession: Recurring images or thoughts that a person cannot prevent ◦ Cause anxiety and extreme discomfort ◦ Enter into consciousness against the person’s will ◦ Most common: Being dirty, wondering if you performed an action (turned off the stove), or violence (hit by a car)  Compulsion: Irrational acts that person feels compelled to repeat against his/her will ◦ Help to control anxiety created by obsessions ◦ Checkers and cleaners

22 Table of Contents Exit  Person has two or more distinct, separate identities or personality states; previously known as Multiple Personality Disorder ◦ Often begins with horrific childhood experiences (e.g., abuse, molestation, etc.) ◦ Goal: Integrate and fuse identities into single, stable personality

23 Table of Contents Exit  Schizophrenia: disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions.  Delusions: false beliefs, often of persecution or granduer  Person with schizophrenia is out of touch with what’s going on in his/her environment

24 Table of Contents Exit  This morning when I was at Hillside Hospital I was making a movie. I was surrounded by movie starts. The X-ray technician was Peter Lawford. The security guard was Don Knotts. That Indian doctor in Building 40 was Lou Costello. I’m Mary Poppins. Is this room painted blue to get me upset? My grandmother died four weeks after my eighteenth birthday.  Breakdown in selective attention/can’t focus on one idea for very long

25 Table of Contents Exit  Emotions of schizophrenia are often utterly inappropirate.  Laugh after recalling grandmothers death or become angry for no reason  Flat affect: some individuals with schizophrenia feel no emotion at all!  Hallucinations: a person with schizophrenia may perceive things that are not there/usually auditory. Hearing voices that insult them or tell them to harm themselves.

26 Table of Contents Exit Fig. 16.6 Over a period of years, Theodore Kaczynski mailed bombs to unsuspecting victims, many of whom were maimed or killed. As a young adult, Kaczynski was a brilliant mathematician. At the time of his arrest, he had become the Unabomber—a reclusive “loner” who deeply mistrusted other people and modern technology. After his arrest, Kaczynski was judged to be suffering from paranoid schizophrenia. © Bruce Ely/Getty Images

27 Table of Contents Exit Fig. 16.7 Lifetime risk of developing schizophrenia is associated with how closely a person is genetically related to a schizophrenic person. A shared environment also increases the risk. (Estimates from Lenzenweger & Gottesman, 1994.)

28 Table of Contents Exit Fig. 16.9 (left) CT scan of would-be presidential assassin John Hinkley, Jr., taken when he was 25. The X-ray image shows widened fissures in the wrinkled surface of Hinkley’s brain. (right) CT scan of a normal 25-year-old’s brain. In most young adults the surface folds of the brain are pressed together too tightly to be seen. As a person ages, surface folds of the brain normally become more visible. Pronounced brain fissuring in young adults may be a sign of schizophrenia, chronic alcoholism, or other problems. © Dennis Brack/Stockphoto.com76

29 Table of Contents Exit  Major disturbances in emotion, such as depression or mania  Mania can be characterized by elevated mood, euphoria, going on shopping sprees, feeling invincible  Depressive Disorders: Sadness or despondency are prolonged, exaggerated, or unreasonable  Bipolar Disorders: Involve both depression and mania or hypomania use to be called manic depression  End of lecture

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