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1 COSC 4107: Human Computer Interaction Lecture 2: Understanding and conceptualizing interaction.

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1 1 COSC 4107: Human Computer Interaction Lecture 2: Understanding and conceptualizing interaction

2 2 Recap HCI has moved beyond designing interfaces for desktop machines HCI has moved beyond designing interfaces for desktop machines About extending and supporting all manner of human activities in all manner of places About extending and supporting all manner of human activities in all manner of places Facilitating user experiences through designing interactions Facilitating user experiences through designing interactions Make work effective, efficient and safer Make work effective, efficient and safer Improve and enhance learning and training Improve and enhance learning and training Provide enjoyable and exciting entertainment Provide enjoyable and exciting entertainment Enhance communication and understanding Enhance communication and understanding Support new forms of creativity and expression Support new forms of creativity and expression

3 3 Understanding the problem space What do you want to create?What do you want to create? What are your assumptions?What are your assumptions? Will it achieve what you hope it will?Will it achieve what you hope it will?

4 4 A framework for analysing the problem space Are there problems with an existing product? Are there problems with an existing product? Why do you think there are problems? Why do you think there are problems? Why do you think your proposed ideas might be useful? Why do you think your proposed ideas might be useful? How would you see people using it with their current way of doing things? How would you see people using it with their current way of doing things? How will it support people in their activities? How will it support people in their activities? Will it really help them? Will it really help them?

5 5 An example An example What were the assumptions made by cell phone companies when developing WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) services? What were the assumptions made by cell phone companies when developing WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) services? Was it a solution looking for a problem? Was it a solution looking for a problem?

6 6 Assumptions: realistic or wish-list? People want to be kept informed of up-to-date news wherever they are - reasonable People want to be kept informed of up-to-date news wherever they are - reasonable People want to interact with information on the move - reasonable People want to interact with information on the move - reasonable People are happy using a very small display and using an extremely restricted interface - not reasonable People are happy using a very small display and using an extremely restricted interface - not reasonable People will be happy doing things on a cell phone that they normally do on their PCs (e.g. surf the web, read , shop, bet, play video games) - reasonable only for a very select bunch of users People will be happy doing things on a cell phone that they normally do on their PCs (e.g. surf the web, read , shop, bet, play video games) - reasonable only for a very select bunch of users

7 7 From problem space to design space Having a good understanding of the problem space can help inform the design space Having a good understanding of the problem space can help inform the design space e.g. what kind of interface, behavior, functionality to providee.g. what kind of interface, behavior, functionality to provide But before deciding upon these it is important to develop a conceptual model But before deciding upon these it is important to develop a conceptual model

8 8 Conceptual model Need to first think about how the system will appear to users (i.e. how they will understand it) Need to first think about how the system will appear to users (i.e. how they will understand it) A conceptual model is a high level description of: A conceptual model is a high level description of: “the proposed system in terms of a set of integrated ideas and concepts about what it should do, behave and look like, that will be understandable by the users in the manner intended”“the proposed system in terms of a set of integrated ideas and concepts about what it should do, behave and look like, that will be understandable by the users in the manner intended”

9 9 First steps in formulating a conceptual model What will the users be doing when carrying out their tasks? What will the users be doing when carrying out their tasks? How will the system support these? How will the system support these? What kind of interface metaphor, if any, will be appropriate? What kind of interface metaphor, if any, will be appropriate? What kinds of interaction modes and styles to use? What kinds of interaction modes and styles to use? Always keep in mind when making design decisions how the user will understand the underlying conceptual model

10 10 Conceptual models Many kinds and ways of classifying them Many kinds and ways of classifying them Here we describe them in terms of core activities and objects Here we describe them in terms of core activities and objects Also in terms of interface metaphors Also in terms of interface metaphors

11 11 Activity A company is building a wireless information system to help tourist find their way around an unfamiliar city. A company is building a wireless information system to help tourist find their way around an unfamiliar city. What would they need to find out to develop a conceptual model? What would they need to find out to develop a conceptual model?

12 12 Conceptual models based on activities Giving instructions Giving instructions issuing commands using keyboard and function keys and selecting options via menusissuing commands using keyboard and function keys and selecting options via menus Conversing Conversing interacting with the system as if having a conversationinteracting with the system as if having a conversation Manipulating and navigating Manipulating and navigating acting on objects and interacting with virtual objectsacting on objects and interacting with virtual objects Exploring and browsing Exploring and browsing finding out and learning thingsfinding out and learning things

13 13 1. Giving instructions Where users instruct the system and tell it what to do Where users instruct the system and tell it what to do e.g. tell the time, print a file, save a filee.g. tell the time, print a file, save a file Very common conceptual model, underlying a diversity of devices and systems Very common conceptual model, underlying a diversity of devices and systems e.g. CAD, word processors, VCRs, vending machinese.g. CAD, word processors, VCRs, vending machines Main benefit is that instructing supports quick and efficient interaction Main benefit is that instructing supports quick and efficient interaction good for repetitive kinds of actions performed on multiple objectsgood for repetitive kinds of actions performed on multiple objects

14 14 2. Conversing Underlying model of having a conversation with another human Underlying model of having a conversation with another human Range from simple voice recognition menu- driven systems to more complex ‘natural language’ dialogues Range from simple voice recognition menu- driven systems to more complex ‘natural language’ dialogues Examples include timetables, search engines, advice-giving systems, help systems Examples include timetables, search engines, advice-giving systems, help systems Recently, much interest in having virtual agents at the interface, who converse with you, e.g. Microsoft’s Clippy Recently, much interest in having virtual agents at the interface, who converse with you, e.g. Microsoft’s Clippy

15 15 Pros and cons of conversational model Allows users, especially novices and technophobes, to interact with the system in a way that is familiar Allows users, especially novices and technophobes, to interact with the system in a way that is familiar makes them feel comfortable, at ease and less scaredmakes them feel comfortable, at ease and less scared Misunderstandings can arise when the system does not know how to parse what the user says Misunderstandings can arise when the system does not know how to parse what the user says A child types into a search engine “Ask Jeeves for Kids”, uses natural language question:A child types into a search engine “Ask Jeeves for Kids”, uses natural language question:http://www.ajkids.com/ “How many legs does a centipede have?” and the system responds:

16 16

17 17 3. Manipulating and navigating Involves dragging, selecting, opening, closing and zooming actions on virtual objects Involves dragging, selecting, opening, closing and zooming actions on virtual objects Exploit’s users’ knowledge of how they move and manipulate in the physical world Exploit’s users’ knowledge of how they move and manipulate in the physical world Exemplified by (i) what you see is what you get (WYSIWYG) and (ii) the direct manipulation approach (DM) Exemplified by (i) what you see is what you get (WYSIWYG) and (ii) the direct manipulation approach (DM) Shneiderman (1983) coined the term DM, came from his fascination with computer games at the time Shneiderman (1983) coined the term DM, came from his fascination with computer games at the time

18 18 Core principles of DM Continuous representation of objects and actions of interest Continuous representation of objects and actions of interest Physical actions and button pressing instead of issuing commands with complex syntax Physical actions and button pressing instead of issuing commands with complex syntax Rapid reversible actions with immediate feedback on object of interest Rapid reversible actions with immediate feedback on object of interest

19 19 Why are DM interfaces so enjoyable? Novices can learn the basic functionality quickly Novices can learn the basic functionality quickly Experienced users can work extremely rapidly to carry out a wide range of tasks, even defining new functions Experienced users can work extremely rapidly to carry out a wide range of tasks, even defining new functions Intermittent users can retain operational concepts over time Intermittent users can retain operational concepts over time Error messages rarely needed Error messages rarely needed Users can immediately see if their actions are furthering their goals and if not do something else Users can immediately see if their actions are furthering their goals and if not do something else Users experience less anxiety Users experience less anxiety Users gain confidence and mastery and feel in control Users gain confidence and mastery and feel in control

20 20 What are the disadvantages with DM? Some people take the metaphor of direct manipulation too literally Some people take the metaphor of direct manipulation too literally Not all tasks can be described by objects and not all actions can be done directly Not all tasks can be described by objects and not all actions can be done directly Some tasks are better achieved through delegating Some tasks are better achieved through delegating e.g. spell checkinge.g. spell checking Can become screen space ‘gobblers’ Can become screen space ‘gobblers’ Moving a mouse around the screen can be slower than pressing function keys to do same actions Moving a mouse around the screen can be slower than pressing function keys to do same actions

21 21 Activity Cold-Drink-Vending-Machines.htm Cold-Drink-Vending-Machines.htm Cold-Drink-Vending-Machines.htm Cold-Drink-Vending-Machines.htm What instructions must be issued to obtain a can of soft drink or a bar of chocolate? What instructions must be issued to obtain a can of soft drink or a bar of chocolate? Which one do you like? Why? Which one do you like? Why? What problems can arise with using them? What problems can arise with using them?

22 22 4. Exploring and browsing Similar to how people browse information with existing media (e.g. newspapers, magazines, libraries, pamphlets) Similar to how people browse information with existing media (e.g. newspapers, magazines, libraries, pamphlets) Information is structured to allow flexibility in a way user is able to search for information Information is structured to allow flexibility in a way user is able to search for information e.g. multimedia, webe.g. multimedia, web

23 23 Activity What conceptual models are the following applications based on? What conceptual models are the following applications based on? A 3-D video gameA 3-D video game The Windows environmentThe Windows environment A web serverA web server 1.Direct manipulation/Virtual environment 2.DM + Conversing +Exploring 3.Instructing + Exploring + browsing

24 24 Conceptual models based on objects Usually based on an analogy with something in the physical world Usually based on an analogy with something in the physical world Examples include books, tools, vehicles Examples include books, tools, vehicles Classic: Star Interface based on office objects Classic: Star Interface based on office objects Johnson et al (1989)

25 25 Another classic: the spreadsheet (Bricklin) Analogous to ledger sheet Analogous to ledger sheet Interactive and computational Interactive and computational Easy to understand Easy to understand Greatly extending what accountants and others could do Greatly extending what accountants and others could do

26 26 Which conceptual model is best? Direct manipulation is good for ‘doing’ types of tasks, e.g. designing, drawing, flying, driving, sizing windows Direct manipulation is good for ‘doing’ types of tasks, e.g. designing, drawing, flying, driving, sizing windows Issuing instructions is good for repetitive tasks, e.g. spell-checking, file management Issuing instructions is good for repetitive tasks, e.g. spell-checking, file management Having a conversation is good for children, computer-phobic, disabled users and specialised applications (e.g. phone services) Having a conversation is good for children, computer-phobic, disabled users and specialised applications (e.g. phone services) Hybrid conceptual models are often employed, where different ways of carrying out the same actions is supported at the interface - but can take longer to learn Hybrid conceptual models are often employed, where different ways of carrying out the same actions is supported at the interface - but can take longer to learn

27 27 Interface metaphors Interface designed to be similar to a physical entity but also has own properties Interface designed to be similar to a physical entity but also has own properties e.g. desktop metaphor, web portalse.g. desktop metaphor, web portals Can be based on activity, object or a combination of both Can be based on activity, object or a combination of both Exploit user’s familiar knowledge, helping them to understand ‘the unfamiliar’ Exploit user’s familiar knowledge, helping them to understand ‘the unfamiliar’ Conjures up the essence of the unfamiliar activity, enabling users to leverage of this to understand more aspects of the unfamiliar functionality Conjures up the essence of the unfamiliar activity, enabling users to leverage of this to understand more aspects of the unfamiliar functionality

28 28 Benefits of interface metaphors Makes learning new systems easier Makes learning new systems easier Helps users understand the underlying conceptual model Helps users understand the underlying conceptual model Can be very innovative and enable the realm of computers and their applications to be made more accessible to a greater diversity of users Can be very innovative and enable the realm of computers and their applications to be made more accessible to a greater diversity of users

29 29 Problems with interface metaphors Break conventional and cultural rules Break conventional and cultural rules e.g. recycle bin placed on desktope.g. recycle bin placed on desktop Can constrain designers in the way they conceptualize a problem space Can constrain designers in the way they conceptualize a problem space Conflict with design principles Conflict with design principles Forces users to only understand the system in terms of the metaphor Forces users to only understand the system in terms of the metaphor Designers can inadvertently use bad existing designs and transfer the bad parts over Designers can inadvertently use bad existing designs and transfer the bad parts over Limits designers’ imagination in coming up with new conceptual models Limits designers’ imagination in coming up with new conceptual models

30 30 Conceptual models: from interaction mode to style Interaction mode: Interaction mode: what the user is doing when interacting with a system, e.g. instructing, talking, browsing or otherwhat the user is doing when interacting with a system, e.g. instructing, talking, browsing or other Interaction style: Interaction style: the kind of interface used to support the mode, e.g. speech, menu-based, gesturethe kind of interface used to support the mode, e.g. speech, menu-based, gesture

31 31 Many kinds of interaction styles available… Command Command Speech Speech Data-entry Data-entry Form fill-in Form fill-in Query Query Graphical Graphical Web Web Pen Pen Augmented reality Augmented reality Gesture and even... Gesture and even...

32 32 Interacting via GPRS enabled cell phone… Drawing an elephant by walking round the streets of a city (or other mode of transport) and entering data points along the way via the cell phone Drawing an elephant by walking round the streets of a city (or other mode of transport) and entering data points along the way via the cell phone Example: Brighton and Hove(UK) by J. Wood by foot, track length 11.2km (see for more examples) Example: Brighton and Hove(UK) by J. Wood by foot, track length 11.2km (see for more examples) GPRS(General Packet Radio Service) GPRS(General Packet Radio Service)

33 33 Making art by recording where walking in a city

34 34 Which interaction style to choose? Need to determine requirements and user needs Need to determine requirements and user needs Take the budget and other constraints into account Take the budget and other constraints into account Also will depend on suitability of technology for activity being supported Also will depend on suitability of technology for activity being supported This topic will be covered more later when discuss how to actually design conceptual models This topic will be covered more later when discuss how to actually design conceptual models

35 35 Activity Examine the IE Explorer and describe the various forms of analogy and composite interface metaphors that have been used in its design. Examine the IE Explorer and describe the various forms of analogy and composite interface metaphors that have been used in its design.

36 36 Interaction paradigms Another form of inspiration for conceptual models Another form of inspiration for conceptual models From the desktop to ubiquitous computing (embedded in the environment) From the desktop to ubiquitous computing (embedded in the environment)

37 37 Examples of new paradigms Ubiquitous computing (mother of them all) Ubiquitous computing (mother of them all) Pervasive computing Pervasive computing Wearable computing Wearable computing Tangible bits Tangible bits Augmented reality Augmented reality Attentive environments Attentive environments Environments/index.shtmlhttp://www.almaden.ibm.com/software/user/Attentive_ Environments/index.shtml Transparent computing Transparent computing kresearch.nsf/pages/coverstory100.html kresearch.nsf/pages/coverstory100.html and many more…. and many more….

38 38 Two examples: BlueEyes (IBM) and Cooltown (HP) Visionary approaches for developing novel conceptual paradigms Visionary approaches for developing novel conceptual paradigms

39 39 Summary points Important to have a good understanding of the problem space Important to have a good understanding of the problem space Fundamental aspect of interaction design is to develop a conceptual model Fundamental aspect of interaction design is to develop a conceptual model Interaction modes and interface metaphors provide a structure for thinking about which kind of conceptual model to develop Interaction modes and interface metaphors provide a structure for thinking about which kind of conceptual model to develop Interaction styles are specific kinds of interfaces that are instantiated as part of the conceptual model Interaction styles are specific kinds of interfaces that are instantiated as part of the conceptual model Interaction paradigms can also be used to inform the design of the conceptual model Interaction paradigms can also be used to inform the design of the conceptual model


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