Teaching word reading skills to students who have reading difficulties John Munro
Teaching word reading accuracy Two aspects Before learning letter cluster links What to teach Teach letter cluster – sound link Automatize letter cluster – sound link- How to teach it 1 syllable words1+ syllable words
Teach the letter cluster-sound links Type of patternExample of individual letter-sound patterns individual sounds map into a letter each letter has a name a short string of letters can be recoded to spoken word Recode words with c-short vowel-c Each letter linked with a sound Example: hot, cat, dog consonant clusters processed at once; a letter-cluster and matching sound pattern shared by several words Develop first for onsets and rimes in 1-syllable word Example: 'hot' as h-ot and 'stop' as st-op one-syllable simple word structureReaders learn to recognise letter strings that have 1.the consonant –vowel- consonant or cvc pattern (for example, dig, pet), 2.the ccvc pattern (for example, stop, plug) and 3.the cvcc pattern (for example, sump, post) two or more consonants can be linked with the same sound Example: Patterns - shell, chop, them
Teach the letter cluster-sound links Type of patternExample words with long versus short vowel sound Two types of sounds associated with vowels; long and short vowel sounds vowel-vowel and vowel-consonants digraphs Example: tree, seem, star, far different letter groups linked with same sound Example: the long 'a' sound is linked with 'ay', 'ai', or 'a-e' as in may, main & mate same letter cluster can be linked with different sound Example: stool versus foot, farm versus fare one-syllable more complex form of digraphs and trigraphs syllables and syllable-like unitsExample: con + cert, in + side, out + side 'silent letters'Example: write, lamb, know how to read two-syllables, one after the other Example: button
Teach the letter cluster-sound links Type of patternExample stress patterns in two-syllable words two-syllable word structure letters surrounding a letter influence how it is said Options for pronouncing 'g' - gentle, grid Options for pronouncing 'c' - cigar, current letter cluster - meaning patternsExample: micro, phone how meaning is carried by particular letter clusters Example: adding 'ing', 's' or 'ed' to a verb syllabic structure of multi-syllabic words Example: prefixes, suffixes and root words that aren't said how they are written; tion, ance, ble, er
Teaching word reading accuracy Three phases in teaching each written word pattern for 1 syllable words Before learning to read the word type, teach relevant sound knowledge; phonological +phonemic knowledge Review relevant word meaning knowledge Teach letter cluster –sound link- phonic knowledge Automatize letter cluster – sound link- orthographic knowledge
Teaching word reading accuracy A sequence for teaching students to read a 1 syllable rime unit To teach students to read ‘own’ rime as in town, brown, clown Teach relevant phonological knowledge Teach relevant phonemic knowledge Teach letter cluster –sound link- phonic knowledge Automatize letter cluster – sound link- orthographic knowledge Teach phonological knowledge for “-ean” Teach students to segment “ean” Automatize link between Teach students to link with ean “ean” ean “ean”
Teach the necessary phonological knowledge. Activities for developing and automatizing relevant phonological knowledge include having readers say accurately each of the words they will learn to read distinguish between words that have and don't have the sound targeted; distinguish between brown clown, town and bran clan, tan suggest other words that rhyme or alliterate with the rime, for example, crown gown, noun segment spoken words such as brown clown, town into onset and rime. discuss the shared sound pattern, eg, how you move your lips to make the sound
Teach the necessary phonemic knowledge. Readers learn relevant phonemic knowledge. Readers: segment words into separate sounds identify shared vowel sounds delete sounds from 1- syllable words substitute consonants or vowels in a spoken 1- syllable words of up to 6 sounds long. recognise a specified sound by comparing 2 or more 1-syllable words blend separate sounds into the types of words to be learnt categorise vowels into long versus short. Work on several examples.
Teach students to recall the meanings of the words you will teach. Review students’ abiliity to recall and use the meanings of some of the words you will teach meanings allow readers : use each word in a sentence that illustrates its meaning, invent a short story using the list words.
11 What we mean Some key concepts that describe aspects of this early development. what we know about the sound patterns in our language. phonological knowledge what we know about individual speech sounds or phonemes. phonemic knowledge our awareness of individual sounds phonemic awareness what we know about saying single sounds with other sounds phonetic knowledge letter-sound patterns phonic knowledge patterns of letters used to write words orthographic knowledge
12 How phonological, phonemic knowledge develops Implicit awareness of sound patterns in words recognize, say rhyming words recognize, say rhyming words in prose recognise words that alliterate Segment words into sound groups, blend sound groups segment words into onset and rime identify the first sound /last sound blend onset and rime Segment words into sounds, blend sounds Segment words into individual sounds (phonemes) Tap for / count each sound Blend sounds
13 How phonological, phonemic knowledge develops Manipulating sounds within words Delete sound from a word Substitute one sound for another Manipulating sounds in 2-, 3- syllable words Synthesize syllables and destress vowel Identify the schwa and the sounds around ti
14 Phonological knowledge profile Sounds in word 3456 1. Implicit awareness of sound patterns in words 1.1Recognize rhyming words 1.2Produce rhyming words 1.3Recognize rhyming words in prose 1.4Produce rhyming words in prose 1.5Recognise words that alliterate 2.Segment words into sounds 2.1Segment words into onset and rime 2.2Identify the first sound 2.3Identify the last sound
15 Phonological knowledge profile (cont.) Sounds in word 3456 2.5Segment words into individual sounds 2.5.1 Say each sound in order 2.5.2 Tap for each sound 2.5.3 Count the sounds 3. Sound blending 3.1Onset-rime blending to make a word 3.2Blend a sequence of sounds 4. Manipulating sounds within words 4.1Delete sound from a word 4.2Substitute one sound for another
16 Phonological knowledge profile (cont.) 5. Phonemic recoding: Bridging to written words letters in word 34 5.1Say individual letters (proportion correct) 5.2Say letter clusters 5.3Say groups of letter clusters
Phonological awareness and VELS Word level knowledge: students at 0.5Phonological knowledge : students select their written name, read aloud the written names of children peers by using the first letter of the name or other distinctive visual features, may confuse words with the same letters, use terminology such as letter, word, sentence match written words with familiar objects and people, for example, in the classroom and show they are aware that a written word can name an object, for example, table, door, window, book. learn a ‘sight/reading vocabulary’ by using distinctive visual features in words to say, for example them, you, me, come, the, to, look. imitate spoken sounds, 2- or 3- sound patterns and retain briefly a string of 2 or 3 sounds. suggest rhyming words. blend two sounds. Letter and letter-name knowledge: students Recognize most common letters and categorise them using shape, identify letters in visual memory activities. Name common letters. represent some sounds (that is, phonemes) by letters (or graphemes).
Phonological awareness and VELS Word level knowledge: students at 1.0Phonological knowledge : students combine letter sound knowledge for reading simple regular 1-syllable 2 to 4 letter words with short vowels in various ways, for example, pin, egg, hop; either (1) by recoding each letter to its matching sound and then blending the sounds or (2) by selecting one of more first letters and guessing quickly the word, match written words with familiar objects and people in more contexts, the classroom. continue to build a ‘sight’ or /reading vocabulary, for example, read I, here, me, am, with, car, children, not, and, to will, look, he, up, in big, go, come, for, you, at, went, get, they boys. They are less likely to mis-read frequent words that share one or more letters. recognise and read words and phrases that are repeated in the text. combine a knowledge of context (meaning, sentence structure and letters) to read or predict words, for example, use the context and the initial sounds of a word to predict it when reading aloud. repeat a spoken pattern of 3- or 4- sounds. suggest words for a given context that begin with a particular sound. blend two sounds automatically. blend an onset and a rime into a word, for example “sl” and “ip” into “slip”. segment spoken 1-syllable words of up to four sounds into onset and rime. identify the first sound in spoken words, select words that begin with a sound, for example, ‘which word begins with “s” ? Letter and letter-name knowledge: categorise lower and upper case letters. discriminate between similar letters (for example, b and d, n and m) by sorting. identify the letters in memory activities. Name most common letters and recall their most characteristic sound, identify some sound - letter relationships.
Phonological awareness and VELS Word level knowledge: students at 1.25Phonological knowledge : students say 1 - and 2- letter onsets and 2- letter rime units with predictable short vowel sounds, for example, ip, et, without recoding each letter separately. read unfamiliar 1-syllable regular words with predictable short vowels by segmenting into onset and rime, saying each unit and blending. read automatically ‘sight’ or reading vocabulary taught earlier without hesitation and add to this. blend 3 sounds automatically into a word and 4 or 5 sounds with attention. segment 1-syllable words of up to 6 sounds into onset and rime. segment 1-syllable words of up to 3 sounds into individual sounds. Letter name knowledge : students name and say the most common sound for all letters.
Phonological awareness and VELS Word level knowledge: students at 1.5Phonological knowledge : students read aloud 2- and 3- letter predictable rimes and 2-letter onsets and use these to read relevant unfamiliar 1-syllable words by recoding and blending read automatically 1-syllable regular words and ‘sight vocabulary’ taught earlier. use word reading strategies based on this knowledge. segment 1-syllable spoken words of up to 4 sounds into separate sounds. blend strings of up to 4 sounds automatically into words and strings of up to 5 sounds into words with attention delete the first sound from 1- syllable spoken words.
Phonological awareness and VELS Word level knowledge: students at 1.75Phonological knowledge : students Word level knowledge: students Read 2- to 4- letter predictable rimes with regular vowel- vowel and vowel-consonant digraphs and 2- and 3-letter onsets with consonant digraphs and use these to read unfamiliar 1-syllable words by recoding and blending. read automatically 1-syllable regular words and ‘sight/reading vocabulary’ taught earlier read unfamiliar words by making rime and onset analogy with known words. use word reading strategies based on this knowledge. show relevant phonological and phonemic knowledge for 1-syllable spoken words of up to 6 sounds; they segment these words into separate sounds. blend strings of up to 6 sounds into words and delete the first or last sound sound from a spoken word.
Phonological awareness and VELS Word level knowledge: students at 2.00Phonological knowledge : students read 2- to 4- letter irregular rimes and use these to read relevant unfamiliar 1-syllable words either (1) by recoding and blending onsets and rimes or (2) by making rime and onset analogy with known words. recognise syllables in familiar 2-syllable words and use these to read unfamiliar 2- syllable words by analogy. Manipulate sound patterns in 1- syllable spoken words in complex ways; delete, insert and substitute sounds in spoken words. Synthesize 2 spoken syllables into a known word by blending and ‘destressing’ the vowel in one of the syllables. Analyse the sound patterns in 2- syllable words; (1) hear two 2- syllable words that differ in one sound and say that sound; (2) hear a 2-syllable word and substitute one of the sounds and say the word formed.
Phonological awareness and VELS Word level knowledge: students at 2.25Phonological knowledge : students Read 1-syllable words that have ‘silent letter patterns’ and link these with the origin of the word, for example, ‘knife’ or knee’. read 2- and 3- syllable words by saying each syllable, blending and modifying the stress on the vowel in one of the syllables to match a spoken word. describe the actions they use to read 2- and 3- syllable words (or example, when they might read a 2-syllable word either by analogy or by recoding and blending syllables and then de- stressing one vowel. Synthesise 3 spoken syllables into a known word by blending and ‘destressing’ the vowel in one of the syllable, for example, “dis”, “a” and “point”. identify the sound patterns shared by 2- and 3- syllable spoken words, for example, they hear “protect” and “proceed” and say “pro” or hear “action” and “station” and say “tion”.
Phonological awareness and VELS Word level knowledge: students at 2.5Phonological knowledge : students read accurately 2- and 3- syllable words of high or moderate frequency. Show an awareness of simple morphographic patterns, for example, ‘s’ added to a noun can indicate a plural, ‘ed’ added to a verb can indicates an action that has finished. segment spoken words of 2- and 3- syllables into phonemes and identify the sounds around the unstressed vowel in a 2-syllable word, for example, “Which sound comes after the (unstressed vowel) in “remain” or “pocket”. add syllables to 1- and 2- syllable words, hear “stay” or “act” and add “tion” to each and say the word.
Phonological awareness and VELS Word level knowledge: students at 2.75Phonological knowledge : students work out the meanings of unfamiliar words in less redundant contexts where components of the meaning are developed across 3 or more paragraphs. read accurately 2- to 4- syllable words with less familiar syllabic patterns. use simple morphographic patterns to assist in working out the meaning of unfamiliar words. show an awareness of homonyms and homophones. manipulate the sound patterns; they segment spoken words of 2- and 3- syllables into phonemes and in particular can identify the sounds around the unstressed vowel in 3- syllable words and automatise this for these words. add syllables to 2- and 3- syllable words, for example and “dis” to “appearance” or “ed” to “expect”.
Phonological awareness and VELS Word level knowledge: students at 3.00Phonological knowledge : students integrate simple morphographic and graphophonic strategies to read accurately 2- syllable words and to infer their meanings. automatise the phonological knowledge covered in 2.00 to 2.75.
Teach the letter cluster-sound links teach the students to link the letter cluster with the sound pattern that you taught in the before learning to read the words phase introduce the letter cluster in a word family by using up to 4 to 5 words. frown town clown crown brown Introduce new pattern We have been talking about words that have ‘own’ like brown and town. Look at how we write them: brown and. How are these like what you know ? Read each word Read each word with students. Students repeat reading each word 2 or 3 times. Read each word in segments Readers say the onset and rime of each word separately, pointing to each letter cluster as they say it, for example, for "town" say "t" and "own". Blending letter clusters. Teach students to read letter clusters by saying each part and blending onsets and rimes into 1-syllable words two letter clusters into a 2-syllable word. brow n town
Teach the letter cluster-sound links How the words are similar The readers read each word again and say the rimes of the words in each category, for example, own and what all members of the list share, both letter clusters and shared sounds. Visualise each word and the rime pattern Readers read each word, close their eyes, make a picture of it and write it. They look at 2 or 3 instances, close their eyes, 'see' the words, imagine writing them and discuss how they are similar visualise the letter cluster in a word that has the sound, eg., the 'ow' in an image of a crown move the letter-sound cluster to other words. Spell the word Develop writing and spelling in parallel with reading. Show the letters that are in the correct sequential positions by ticking Transfer letter-sound rime units to other words Select other words that have the same rime but that you haven't taught. Use nonsense words with the rime, letter and rime cards to make up words that readers need to say as quickly as they can. Encourage readers to predict how to say unfamiliar words. Write a sentence Readers make up a sentence about each word that illustrates its meaning.
Teach the letter cluster-sound links Discriminate the word type from similar words they have already learnt Students learning 'own' could read the following: Discriminate the word type from words they have learnt with the same pattern Students link this letter sound with the same letter pattern but that is said differently: How do you tell how to say each one ? How are they different ? frowntownclotnowbrowntrod tornfortclowncrowntown bran frownthrownslownowblownknow towflowclowncrowntown row What do you know now about when you see –own in a word ? How could you read this word ? grown When we see –own in a word we can say it as ‘oa’ or ‘ou’
Teach the letter cluster-sound links Link the sound with other sounds they know. What other letter patterns you have learnt make the sound as brown has ? How do we spell these words? Students link this letter sound pattern with the same sound but that is written differently: How do you tell how to say each one ? How are they different ? Reading prose Transfer the letter cluster to prose. The readers and / or the teacher can invent and write short stories that contain the words. They read them. read sentences containing some of the words. read words containing the unit in prose. scan prose they read for other words that have the letter cluster and list them. Avoid prose that repeats rime units in high frequency, unnatural ways. frowntownclown What do we know now about the ‘oun’ sound ? When we hear the –’oun sound you can spell it as ‘own’ or ‘oun’ noun
Teach the letter cluster-sound links Read 2- and 3- syllable words Dictation for sentences Provide dictation for sentences containing the words with the pattern. Teach meta- phonemic knowledge directly. For the -own pattern, they discuss what they know about letter cluster patterns how they can use what they know about some words to read others how they could make bigger words from the smaller words. how they segment words, why segmenting words into 2 or 3 parts is useful. talk about their developing knowledge of word patterns recognise familiar letter cluster patterns in unfamiliar words see themselves as 'self teachers'. frownedbrowniebrownerbrowningbrowned frowningdrowningcrowneddownerclowning
Monitoring word reading progress New word Not sureMore sureReally sureKnow word perfectly frowningdrowningcrowneddowner car new house brown
Abstract the letter cluster pattern. fowltownhowlbrown Students use regularities and patterns in rime letter clusters to learn more abstract patterns and use them to predict words. gowncowl -ow-
Organize changing knowledge in a systematic easy-to -use way Letter pattern Examples of each type of pattern -oa-boatboar -ai-trainfair -ee-feed -ow-shownbrown
After learning to read the words : automatising teach the students to automatise their knowledge of the letter pattern guide them to recognise the letter pattern automatically to lead to orthographic reading. Categorizing, sorting, matching activities. Read unfamiliar words by analogy. I can work out how to read by using what I know about Memory activities. I knew that I would read in a word as (long o). Now I know that I can also read it as ‘ou’. Awareness of word structures. Which of these could be words? brown town gown blown flown grown drown brown -ow- dr ow n gl owf r owg
After learning to read the words : automatising teach the students to automatise their knowledge of the letter pattern guide them to recognise the letter pattern automatically to lead to orthographic reading. Use letter cluster pattern in game activities. Teach students to chunk new written words. I can work out how to read these words by breaking them up like this: What goes with what? Students predict the likely letters/ clusters that might precede or follow. Guide readers to recall the letter cluster faster. brown town gown blown flowngrown flow ers pow der ow dr ow n gl owl
The 37 dependable rimes -ack -ail -ain -ake -ale -ame -an -ank -ap - ash -at -ate -aw -ay -eat -ell -est -ice -ick -ide -ight -ill -in -ine -ing -ink -ip -it -ock -oke -op -ore -ot -uck -ug -ump -unk The English language is often said to be irregular. However, there are 37 dependable rimes, whose pronunciation remains the same regardless of the onset. From these consistent endings, you can make over 500 words
The 37 dependable rimes test binpinthinspinrocksockblockclockjumppumpthump canmanplanthanbellwellshellspelltestrestchest daysayplaystaybackpackblacktracklight sawpawdrawthawhillfillchillspillmeatbeatcheat cabtabgrabcrabringwingthingbringcakemakeshake bugmugplugslugducklucktruckstuckdatelateplate hotnotshotspotsickpickbrickthicknamecameshame fatpatchatthattailmailsnailtrailricemiceslice captapclaptrapbanktankthankdrankridehideslide hoptopstopshopmasktaskflask-finemineshine lipzipdripshipjunkbunktrunkchunkmorecorestore hitpitspitgritpinkwinkthinkstinkwokepokebroke rainmainbrain salemalewhale