Presentation on theme: "The Silent Way Lecture #10 Textbook: Larsen-Freeman, D. (2000). Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. (2th ed.). Oxford University Press."— Presentation transcript:
The Silent Way Lecture #10 Textbook: Larsen-Freeman, D. (2000). Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. (2th ed.). Oxford University Press.
The Silent Way Review of the last lecture: Basic concepts: Human is creative, so mimicry, memorization, repetition and parrot learning (Behaviorism) do not lead to real learning. Language is not confined to a limited number of structures (as opposed to Structuralism). Best evidence: new sentences that children make in early life. Language learning is not the outcome of habit formation (Behaviorism). It is the process of creative rule formation (Cognitive Psychology).
The Silent Way Generative Transformational theory (proposed by Chomsky in 1957) is a model for the description of all languages. Grammar is the native speaker’s knowledge of language. It is not something which is written. It is implicit abstract, internalized. Competence is different from Performance which is the actual use of the language by individuals. (Noam Chomsky) Langue(language) and Parole (performance) Swiss linguist Ferdiand D-Saussure(founding father of structuralism)
The Silent Way (SW) Do you want to have summary of principles as well… Here is a short summary of the principles…
SW: Principles Why don’t you try yourself? …………….. Teacher starts from familiar to unfamiliar, I mean…..from known to unknown as we have seen in the class proceeding Good!
The Silent Way Principles: 1: The teacher goes from familiar to unfamiliar. For example, he starts with L2 sounds which are similar to L1 sounds.
Language Teaching: SW 2: The teacher speaks very little, only when needed. His silence motivates the learners to participate more and be active.
Language Teaching : SW 3. The teacher is not the model. His gestures work. Student’s “self criteria” for correctness are emphasized. The student takes the responsibility of learning.
Language Teaching : SW 4. Students’ actions show if they have learned. 5. Students help each other. 6. The teacher uses gestures and L1 to help them learn.
Language Teaching : SW 7. & 8. Students’ familiar knowledge (old context) helps them learn the unfamiliar (new context). The teacher’s interference is very little.
Language Teaching : SW 9. Reading is worked on from the beginning but after speaking. 10. The teacher's silence leads to the student's autonomy: learner centeredness.
Language Teaching : SW 11. Meaning is achieved through perceptions (senses), not translation. 12.Group cooperation is the norm. 13. Little praise and punishment.
Language Teaching : SW 14. Errors are important. They are the road signs. 15. Self correction over teacher’s correction. 16. Students listen to each other.
Language Teaching : SW 17. Learning rates are different. Perfection is not the target. 18. The teacher frees his time by his silence. 19. Students are attentive.
Language Teaching : SW 20. Meaningful practice is preferred to repetition. 21. Logical presentation of language elements from familiar to unfamiliar.
Language Teaching : SW 22. & 23. Autonomy is gained by exploring and making choices. 24. Feedback from students informs the teacher. 25.No home work: sleeping practice
TIQ GRCIFLCASNEE Goals Role Characteristics Interaction Feelings Language/culture Areas of language/skills of language Native language Errors Evaluation
Any Questions… Today we gave more time to revision….
Caleb Gattegno, the creator of the Silent Way
1.What are the goals of teachers who use the Silent Way? - self expression - developing the inner criteria for correctness 2. What is the role of the teacher? What is the role of the students? - The teacher play as a technician or engineer. - Students’ role is active learners.
3. What are some characteristics of the teaching/ learning process? - Building up a whole set of sounds by sound-color chart -Teacher will give situation from which students can have a structure of language. - Practice of using a new language 4. What is the nature of student-teacher interaction? What is the nature of student-student interaction? The teacher has to remain silent. And students’ cooperation is important.
5. How are the feelings of the students dealt with? - Teachers are responsible to help students overcome the obstacles. - There will be a feedback session in the end of the class. 6. How is language viewed? How is culture viewed? - Each language has its unique feature. -Culture is always inseparable from language.
7. What areas of language are emphasized? What language skills are emphasized? - Sound: students have to acquire the melody of a language - Focus on the structures of a language -Vocabulary acquisition may be restricted -There is no fixed syllabus 8. What is the role of the students’ native language? The students’ native language can used to give instructions and help them with their pronunciation and perception.
9. How is evaluation accomplished? - Teachers rarely give test, so their observation on students’ learning process is important. -Teachers should not praise or criticize students. 10. How does the teacher respond to student errors? - Teachers work with students in getting them to self-correct. -If students cannot do it for themselves, teachers will aid them by supplying the correct answers.
Techniques and Materials - Sound-color chart: The color chart can draw students’ attention. Color chart can remind students what they learned and what they yet need to learn. -Teacher’s silence: The teacher gives help, and then is silent when the teacher is setting up a situation for language structure. For example: Take a ___ rod.
Techniques and Materials~ -Peer correction: Students are encouraged to help another. Their relationship is based on cooperation, not competition.
-Rods: Rods can be used to provide visible actions or situations for any language structure, to introduce it, or to enable students to practice using it. Rods are used to teach colors, numbers, and statements with prepositions and conditionals. Rods can be used abstractly as well. The teacher can use rods to represent each word in a sentence or to elicit the sentence from the students.
-Self-correction gestures The teacher put his palms together and then moved them outwards to signal to the students the need to lengthen the particular vowel. The teacher indicated that each of his fingers represented a word in a sentence and used this to locate the trouble spot for the student.
-Word chart 1. There are twelve English charts containing about 500 words. The charts contain the functional vocabulary of English. 2. The teacher points to words in word chart in a sequence to let students to read aloud the sentences. The way the letters are colored helps students with their pronunciation.
-Fidel charts 1. There are eight Fidel charts for learning English. 2. The teacher, and later the students, point to the color-coded Fidel charts in order that students associate the sounds of the language with their spelling. e.g. /ey/ ay, ea, ei, eigh (‘say,’ ‘steak,’ ‘veil,’ ‘weigh’)
-Structured feedback Students make observations about what they have learned and express their opinion and comments to the teacher. The teacher has to accept the students’ comments in a non-defensive manner, hearing things that will help give him direction for where he should work when the class meets again.
CONCLUSION The Silent Way can be used with elementary, intermediate, and advanced students. Its principles are far-reaching. It not only affects education, but the way one perceives the living of life. There are clearly implications for language teaching.