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CELEST CELEST Thrust Three: Learning in Cognitive-Emotional Interactions and Planned Sequential Behaviors 10 July 2007.

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Presentation on theme: "CELEST CELEST Thrust Three: Learning in Cognitive-Emotional Interactions and Planned Sequential Behaviors 10 July 2007."— Presentation transcript:

1 CELEST CELEST Thrust Three: Learning in Cognitive-Emotional Interactions and Planned Sequential Behaviors 10 July 2007

2 CELEST Some questions about sequence learning What are some real-life examples of sequence learning? Why do scientists study sequence memory/learning phenomena? What are (or should be) the big questions? What has been discovered? E.g., Why is working memory span measured with a sequence recall task? Where is research heading? Does this have any applications to educational practice? Anything that good teachers didn’t already know?

3 CELEST Working Memory for Sequential Information is required for most cognitive and planning tasks, e.g., language comprehension and production “holding in mind” and following instructions (scripts) reading and spelling typing, handwriting and composing imitation learning of act sequences

4 CELEST Some questions about sequence learning What are some real-life examples of sequence learning? Why do scientists study sequence memory/learning phenomena? What are (or should be) the big questions? What has been discovered? E.g., Why is working memory span measured with a sequence recall task? Where is research heading? Does this have any applications to educational practice? Anything that good teachers didn’t already know?

5 CELEST Scientists will study anything …. that they don’t already understand.

6 CELEST Scientists will study anything …. that they don’t already understand. For those for whom puzzlement is insufficient justification: DNA sequences encode the wisdom accumulated by biological evolution. Learned sequences encode wisdom accumulated by cultural evolution. "Man...owes this immense superiority to his intellectual faculties, to his social habits, which lead him to aid and defend his fellows, and to his corporeal structure....Through his powers of intellect, articulate language has been evolved; and on this his wonderful advancement has mainly depended." C. Darwin (1871), The descent of man and selection in relation to sex.

7 CELEST Some questions about sequence learning What are some real-life examples of sequence learning? Why do scientists study sequence memory/learning phenomena? What are (or should be) the big questions? What has been discovered? E.g., Why is working memory span measured with a sequence recall task? Where is research heading? Does this have any applications to educational practice? Anything that good teachers didn’t already know?

8 CELEST What makes the human brain so facile at manipulating and storing sequential codes? What brain changes made language per se possible? How does language build upon, yet also surpass, preexisting adaptations for sequential coding?

9 CELEST Some questions about sequence learning What are some real-life examples of sequence learning? Why do scientists study sequence memory/learning phenomena? What are (or should be) the big questions? What has been discovered? E.g., Why is working memory span measured with a sequence recall task? Where is research heading? Does this have any applications to educational practice? Anything that good teachers didn’t already know?

10 CELEST Agam, Bullock & Sekuler (2005) J. Neurophysiology “Imitating unfamiliar sequences of connected linear motions” left: modeled disk’s path of motion middle: subject’s delayed attempt to imitate motions right: static paths shown as post- imitation feedback Each motion sequence was 3 to 7 segments long and unfamiliar, i.e., novel.

11 How are sequences represented in WORKING MEMORY? Lashley, 1951; Grossberg (1978); Houghton (1990); Page & Norris (1998); Rhodes & Bullock (2003); Farrell & Lewandowsky (2004) Simulation of CQ model of Boardman & Bullock (1991) PFC (area 46) data from cued- recall figure- drawing task of Averbeck, Chafee, Crowe, Georgopoulos (2002) Competitive Queuing (CQ)

12 CELEST Some questions about sequence learning What are some real-life examples of sequence learning? Why do scientists study sequence memory/learning phenomena? What are (or should be) the big questions? What has been discovered? E.g., Why is working memory span measured with a sequence recall task? Where is research heading? Does this have any applications to educational practice? Anything that good teachers didn’t already know?

13 CELEST Agam, Bullock & Sekuler (2005) “Imitating unfamiliar sequences of connected linear motions” WM for motion sequences has limited capacity Both patterns replicate past results seen in immediate serial recall (ISR) of verbal items Error grows across serial positions

14 CELEST Agam, Bullock & Sekuler (2005) “Imitating unfamiliar sequences of connected linear motions” Largest overshoots of segment amplitudes occurred for the final item of each sequence Errors: Adjacent-segment transpositions predominated (as in verbal ISR data)

15 How are such effects explained by competitive queuing models? Competitive Queuing (CQ) rank order is vulnerable to noise final item is free from competitors Averbeck et al. (2002)

16 CELEST Some questions about sequence learning What are some real-life examples of sequence learning? Why do scientists study sequence memory/learning phenomena? What are (or should be) the big questions? What has been discovered? E.g., Why is working memory span measured with a sequence recall task? Where is research heading? Does this have any applications to educational practice? Anything that good teachers didn’t already know?

17 CELEST EEG high-frequency bands Mean energy in band declines with serial position in the stimulus Agam & Sekuler (2006) EEG high-frequency bands associated with ATTENTION

18 CELEST Rice & Sekuler (early results) Distributed practice: Learning is slow, but durable Agam, Galperin, Gold & Sekuler (2006) Learning to imitate motion sequences across multiple repetitions

19 CELEST Next Generation CQ Models Gradient Order DIVA (GODIVA) Model of Speech Production Bohland, Guenther, Bullock (2007) Thrusts 2 and 3

20 CELEST T2-T3 Cross-Thrust Modeling: GODIVA Laminar Model of Speech Production Bohland, Guenther, Bullock (2007) Combining an abstract syllable position code with the gradient code for order enables the model to work well despite limited analog bandwidth. GODIVA model explains why exchange errors respect position within syllables.

21 CELEST TE lencephalic L aminar O bjective S elector Brown, Bullock & Grossberg (2004) TELOS Model Dopamine This model learned and remembered IF-THEN rules for voluntary attending in seven primate tasks. How does COHERENT CORTICAL ACTIVITY enable the BASAL GANGLIA to gate voluntary execution of cognitive plans?

22 CELEST TELOS simulations: 17 model cell activities matched 17 recorded cell discharge patterns Brown, Bullock & Grossberg (2000; 2004) Fixation Saccade Overlap Gap Memory F T F T F T F T F T

23 CELEST Some questions about sequence learning What are some real-life examples of sequence learning? Why do scientists study sequence memory/learning phenomena? What are (or should be) the big questions? What has been discovered? E.g., Why is working memory span measured with a sequence recall task? Where is research heading? Does this have any applications to educational practice? Anything that good teachers didn’t already know?


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