Presentation on theme: "US 8933 Relate aspects of animal behaviour to environmental factors"— Presentation transcript:
1 US 8933 Relate aspects of animal behaviour to environmental factors ANDAS Describe animal Behaviour and Plant Responses to Environmental factorsResponsesInnate and LearnedStimuliTaxis and KinesisNavigationEnvironmental CuesBiological ClocksControlling RhythmActogramsHuman Biorhythms
2 Human Responses Humans have 5 senses. They are: Sight Hearing Touch TasteSmell (olfaction)Do all species in the animal Kingdom share the same senses
3 STIMULI Animals may respond to the following things… Light (photo) Chemical (chemo)Temperature (thermo)Touch (thigmo)Sound (audio)Gravity (geo/gravi)What was our little ‘gator responding to?Touch!
4 Central Nervous system RESPONSESAnimals exhibit behaviours, which are a response to a stimulus.StimulusBANG!ReceptorNerve (electrical) impulseCNSCentral Nervous systemNeck musclesEffectorNerve (electrical) impulseResponse
5 INNATE AND LEARNED Responses may be INNATE (genetic) or LEARNED. responses include:- Taxis (directional)- Kinesis (non-directional)- Reflex reactions (short-circuits the brain)responses include:- Conditioning (Pavlov's dogs)- Habit (response wanes with no effect)- Operant (youtube – OC using my cat)- Imprinting (animal behaviour.net)Click to view ‘gator responses
6 TAXIS AND KINESISThese are both types of movement that are an innate and stereotyped (always the same) response.TAXISPositive or Negative – towards or away- (e.g. “negative phototaxis”)Animals must be able to detect the direction!KINESISNon-directional.Random movement where activity depends on intensity of stimulus.If it involves speed = orthokinesisIf it involves turning = klinokinesisLab Manual pg 173/4
7 NAVIGATIONMigrationA periodic movement that may involve going to an unfamiliar area, or movement of over 10,000km. It may even take multiple generations.Uses environmental cues such as magnetism, sun compass, wave direction, etc.HomingReturning to a home base. Often uses visual cues.The stimuli are environmental cues (day length etc) and the response is a rather impressive movement. This may be over 10,000 km, unfamiliar territory, and may take several generations.Lab Manual pg 182-4, 180, 176-7…
8 ENVIRONMENTAL CUESAnimals respond to many numbers of environmental cues.These include astronomically caused cycles, such as...The earth orbiting the sun (seasons) “circannual”, e.g hibernation (inactive through winter) and- aestivation (inactive through summer)The Moon orbiting the Earth (phases of the moon) “circalunar”The Earth spinning on its axis (day/night) “circadian”, e.g.- diurnal (active during the day)- nocturnal (active during the night), and- crepuscular (active at dusk and dawn).The Earth spinning on its axis also causes the tides “circatidal”Lab Manual pg 188/189
9 BIOLOGICAL CLOCKS Regular behaviour patterns need to be reset. Exogenous rhythms are controlled by external stimuliEndogenous rhythms are controlled by an internal mechanismsMost behaviours are controlled by a combination of both.A zeitgeber (“time giver” – such as sunrise or high tide) is used to reset the biological clock.This is known as entrainment.How can we test if it is endogenous or exogenous? Remove external stimuli and see what happens…Endogenous rhythms will continue to operate at pretty much the same time.Exogenous rhythms will appear quite random.
10 CONTROLLING RHYTHMS So... how does it work? Your pacemaker (timekeeper) lies in the hypothalamus in your brain.Light entrains the hypothalamus which signals the pineal gland to release melatonin at night - makes us drowsy.There is less light in the winter, therefore more melatonin is released... may cause S.A.D. in humans!Lab Manual pg 190
11 ACTOGRAMS An actogram shows activity through the day. Note: the data is plotted twice to make the patterns more obvious.Is this endogenous or exogenous?Endogenous! It continues even without stimuli.What is it’s free running period?= about 23hr 35minA phase shift is where an animal is shifted to another time zone. Lab Manual pg 193/4/5
12 HUMAN BIORHYTHMS Humans display a number of Biological rhythms: Our sleep/wake cycle (24hrs 11minutes ± 16 minutes) - tested using students (tee hee) who were confined to permanent lighting conditions.We process alcohol better depending on the time of day (really bad in the early hours of the morning).The hypothalamus controls production of many hormones, as in urinary, cardiovascular and immune systems.Learning ability goes like this: Lab Manual pg 191/2
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