Presentation on theme: "The Relationship Between Emotional Intelligence and Cross-Cultural Adaptability: Theory and Practice."— Presentation transcript:
The Relationship Between Emotional Intelligence and Cross-Cultural Adaptability: Theory and Practice
Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between Cross-Cultural Adaptability and Emotional Intelligence to determine if there are definable and measurable characteristics of cross-cultural effectiveness. The goal was to see what could be learned about the relationship between personality, emotional control, interpersonal relationships and adaptability.
Hypotheses It was hypothesized that cross-culturally effective individuals would show resilience, flexibility and the capacity to handle stress, as measured by a test of personality. It was also hypothesized that cross-culturally adaptable people would show signs of emotional intelligence through their ability to manage their emotions and display empathy, as measured by a test of emotional intelligence. In addition, it was hypothesized that this sample would seek out interpersonal relationships. Finally, it was expected that the CCAI would be highly correlated with all of the above.
What is the Cross-Cultural Challenge? “One faces emotional disconnection during a cross- cultural interaction. Depending on the layers of defenses used to cope with this disconnection, one may or may not be conscious of the emotions that one is experiencing. When these painful, emotional experiences are not responded to effectively and competently over time, prejudicial stance towards cross- cultural differences may develop which really serves as a defense against anxiety and the fear of difference and implies a lack of mastery over the uncomfortable feelings of being different.” Allport, 1954
Culture Shock Culture shock is the loss of the familiar as well as the confrontation with the unknown. It is the emotional response to cultural differences. It involves emotions of anxiety, frustration, alienation and excitement.
Cross-Cultural Effectiveness Gardner (1962) cited the “universal communicator” who was stable, extroverted and intuitive. Ruben (1976) discussed empathy and tolerance for ambiguity. Cui and Awi (1992) cited social-emotional factors including maintaining relationships.
Emotional Intelligence A cross-section of interrelated emotional and social competencies, skills, and facilitators that determine how effectively we understand and express ourselves, understand others and relate with them, and cope with daily demands. EI skills include empathy, impulse control, optimism, and self- awareness.
The Cross-Cultural Adaptability Inventory (CCAI) Developed as a 50-question self-scoring training instrument designed to give feedback to individuals about his or her potential for cross- cultural effectiveness Designed to be culture general Promotes self-awareness Facilitates decisions about working or living in a cross-cultural environment
CCAI Dimensions The inventory is comprised of four factors: Emotional Resilience Flexibility/Openness Perceptual Acuity Personal Autonomy
Emotional Resilience Comprised of 18 items Taps a person’s ability to handle stressful feelings and bounce back from setbacks Involves tolerating ambiguity, a sense of humor and dealing with people in new or unfamiliar situations
Flexibility/Openness Comprised of 15 items Measures a nonjudgmental and tolerant attitude toward others Involves flexibility with regard to new people, ideas and experiences
Perceptual Acuity Comprised of 10 items Most closely associated with empathy Sensitivity to verbal and non-verbal cues Ability to understand behavior within the context of culture
Personal Autonomy Comprised of 7 items Measures the strength of a person’s values, beliefs and personal identity within an unfamiliar setting Score is often modified by previous cross-cultural experience or gender
Sample Data taken from 381 reality television finalists and competitors 190 Men, ages 21 to Women, ages 21 to 69
Measures Personal Data Questionnaire: (age, gender, ethnicity, family background, psychiatric and medical history, education, etc.) The Cross-Cultural Adaptability Inventory (CCAI): The inventory consists of 50 questions, and individuals rated themselves on a six-point Likert scales on the dimensions of Emotional Resilience, Flexibility/Openness, Perceptual Acuity and Personal Autonomy. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2): A 567-item True/False objective personality test comprised of 13 clinical scales that can be applied to a wide variety of clinical and non-clinical populations. The Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation-Behavior (FIRO-B): A 54-item instrument that gathers critical insights into how an individual's needs for inclusion, control, and affection can shape his or her interactions with others. The Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQI): A 133-item inventory that gives scores on five composite scales, with 15 subscales, that measures emotional and social competencies.
Summary of Results Cross-cultural effectiveness is associated with low neuroticism, extroversion and the need for interpersonal attachments There is a strong correlation between measures of emotional intelligence and cross-cultural adaptability.
CCAI and the MMPI F/O Scale Anxiety Scale CCAI Total ER Scale SI ScaleK Scale
CCAI and FIRO-B CCAI Total Wanted Affection Expressed Affection
CCAI and EQ-i CCAI Total EmpathyTotal EQ
Conclusion The constructs on the CCAI correlate with emotional intelligence. Low neuroticism, good stress tolerance, extroversion and need for attachment are essential to cross-cultural effectiveness. Developing empathy, emotional self-awareness and emotional regulation is predictive of cross- cultural success.