Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Dragos Cirneci PhD senior consultant. Neuromyths = common misconceptions about brain mechanisms, which are taken for granted in today’s society 1. we.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Dragos Cirneci PhD senior consultant. Neuromyths = common misconceptions about brain mechanisms, which are taken for granted in today’s society 1. we."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dragos Cirneci PhD senior consultant

2 Neuromyths = common misconceptions about brain mechanisms, which are taken for granted in today’s society 1. we have 5 senses 2. “the primitive part of the brain” 3. the rational vs the emotional brain 4. the brain as a camcorder 5. new neurons doesn’t appear in adult brain 6. genes vs environment effect 7. mental problems as effect of childhood traumatic memories 8. The most important myth is that consciousness dictates our decisions and actions Dragos Cirneci

3 Neuromyths = common misconceptions about brain mechanisms, which are taken for granted in today’s society 1. we have 5 senses Actualy we have 13 (discovered until now): sight (ophthalmoception), hearing (audioception), taste (gustaoception), smell (olfacoception or olfacception), touch (tactioception), feromonal sense, blue light sense, temperature (thermoception), kinesthetic sense (proprioception), pain (nociception), balance (equilibrioception), visceral sense (the perception of internal organs), chemical sense (e.g. the different chemoreceptors for detecting salt and carbon dioxide concentrations in the blood) Dragos Cirneci

4 Neuromyths = common misconceptions about brain mechanisms, which are taken for granted in today’s society 2. “the primitive part of the brain” Human brain is similar in its organization and functions with all the mammals brain. Only some parts are more evolved but these parts exist also in mammals brain. Dragos Cirneci

5 Neuromyths = common misconceptions about brain mechanisms, which are taken for granted in today’s society 3. the rational/the emotional brain Emotions appear almost in all parts of the brain. Differences consist only in timing and type of context/action. Dragos Cirneci

6 Neuromyths = common misconceptions about brain mechanisms, which are taken for granted in today’s society 4. the brain as a camcorder The memories are not “replayed from the tape” when they are remembered. The information stored in the brain is actually reconstructed and updated every time when we remember. Every time when we do this that memory could become a new memory incorporating new information related with it. We can learn only things related with what we already know Dragos Cirneci Schacter & Addis, 2007

7 Neuromyths = common misconceptions about brain mechanisms, which are taken for granted in today’s society 5. new neurons doesn’t appear in adult brain The brain generates new neurons during the entire life. These new neurons are essential for learning and coping with stress. Dragos Cirneci

8 Neuromyths = common misconceptions about brain mechanisms, which are taken for granted in today’s society 6. genes vs environment effect The environment acts upon our brain by modifying the brain’s genes activity (some genes are turned on some are turned off). Learning and stress are actually examples of genetic effects– or more precisely “epigenetic effects”. Dragos Cirneci Robinson et al. 2008

9 Neuromyths = common misconceptions about brain mechanisms, which are taken for granted in today’s society 7. mental problems as effect of childhood traumatic memories Adult mental problems are frequently rooted in childhood traumatic events but in most of the cases not the memory of the event is the cause of the problem. Traumatic events exert epigenetic effects upon the brain’s genes responsible for the circuits involved in adapting to novelty, fast changing environment, uncertainty and negative feedback. Dragos Cirneci Trauma Brain’s genes Brain Circuits Behavior & emotions

10 Dragos Cirneci

11

12 The left hemisphere  declarative & narrative consciousness  language (semantic & categories)  the construction of “meaning” and “sense”  the feeling of control over life and environment  in the first 3 years of life is smaller than the left one, after becomes gradually bigger Dragos Cirneci

13 The left hemisphere The right hemisphere Familiar thingsUnfamiliar things BeliefsUncertainty RoutinesNew learning Relaxation Focus, mental effort Pleasant, rewarding thingsStress, danger Lower activity in depressionHigher activity in anxiety Dragos Cirneci

14 The left hemisphere The right hemisphere Feelings of meaningless Adaptability/reaction to novelty problems Lack of satisfactionLearning new things problems Dragos Cirneci Returning to familiar Brain Training

15 The right hemisphere Unfamiliar things Uncertainty New learning Stress, danger Adaptability/reaction to novelty Dragos Cirneci Stress = inability of the brain to deal with novelty, uncertainty & change

16 Brain’s plasticity = The key to adaptation  Plastic derives from the Greek word meaning "molded" or "formed" and could be described as the tendency of the brain to shape itself according to experience  Plasticity networks the brain, gives it cognition and memory, as well as fluidity and adaptability Dragos Cirneci Hagmann et al., 2008

17 3 factors to induce plasticity in adult brain Dragos Cirneci Recipe for a good mental exercise 1.Variety Excessive specialization is not the best strategy for a long- term brain health. A better strategy is to stimulate the multiple functions of the brain. This can be done by creating a mental “workout circuit” similar to a physical exercise circuit in a health club since our brains are composed of multiple structures with multiple functions. 2. Challenge The goal is to be exposed to increasing levels of challenge, so that a task never becomes to easy or routine. 3. Novelty Trying new things is important since very important parts of the brain, such as the prefrontal cortex, are mostly exercised when we learn to master new cognitive challenges.

18 Dragos Cirneci Gomez-Pinillia, 2008

19 Brain’s connections in stress & depression  In depression the brain genes involved in plasticity & learning are turned off  Chronic stress negatively impact connectivity in the brain Dragos Cirneci Liston, McEwen & Casey, 2009

20 Critical periods = in developmental psychology and developmental biology, a “critical period” is a phase in the life span during which an organism has heightened sensitivity to exogenous stimuli that are compulsory for the development of a particular skill Lower level abilities (visual, auditory, sensory-motor) has a shorter critical period, which close earlier in the development (i.e. critical period for visual ability closes at 5 years old) Higher level abilities (language, cognition, decision making) has a longer critical period, which close later in the development ( i.e. critical period for language acquisition closes at 12 years old) Dragos Cirneci

21

22

23 Behavioral inhibition = a pattern of behavior involving withdrawal, avoidance, fear of the unfamiliar, and over-arousal of the sympathetic nervous system. Behavioral inhibition typically appears as a temperamental predisposition found in childhood. Behavioral inhibition emerges at 8-9 months, is usually measured at 21 months and becomes a stable temperament trait at 7.5 years old Behavioral inhibition is a strong predictor of adolescent and adult emotional and social problems, and a relative good predictor for anxiety and depression Dragos Cirneci

24 Behavioral inhibition is caused by an abnormal connectivity between 2 brain structures: amygdala (part of the limbic system) and anterior cingulate cortex (part of the prefrontal cortex) which results in an overactivated amygdala Dragos Cirneci

25

26

27 Re- exposure/ remember the trauma Asociation trauma- neutral info 10 min-1h after Re- consolidation of new memory 6 h Efects visible after 24-48 h Extinction of traumatic memories procedure

28 CONCLUDING REMARKS All the thoughts, behaviors and emotions are triggered by the brain The brain functioning (including genetics) is permanently impacted by the environment The brain is a learning machine – all the diseases of the brain are also malfunctions of learning mechanisms All the superior mental abilities – from envisioning the future to creativity – lies in brain’s plasticity (ability to create networks upon the impact of environment) Mental health and superior performance could be achieved by knowing how to control brain’s mechanisms Dragos Cirneci

29 Dragos Cirneci PhD E-mail address: dragos.cirneci@brainperform.ro www.synergonconsulting.ro Thank you for your attention!


Download ppt "Dragos Cirneci PhD senior consultant. Neuromyths = common misconceptions about brain mechanisms, which are taken for granted in today’s society 1. we."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google