5 Analyzing and Anticipating Analyze the taskIdentify the purposeAnticipate the audiencePrimary receivers?Secondary receivers?Select the best channelImportance of the message?Feedback required?Permanent record required?Cost of the channel?Degree of formality?4
6 Adapting to Task and Audience Spotlight receiver benefits (the warranty starts working for you immediately).Cultivate the “you” view (you will receive your order).Use sensitive language avoiding gender, race, age, and disability biases (office workers, not office girls).5
7 Adapting to Task and Audience Express thoughts positively (you will be happy to, not you won't be sorry that).Use familiar words (salary, not remuneration).Use precise, vigorous words (fax me, not contact me).5
8 Developing Reader Benefits Sender-focused“We are requiring all staffers to complete these forms in compliance with company policy.”Receiver-focused“Please complete these forms so that you will be eligible for health and dental benefits.”
9 Developing Reader Benefits Sender-focused“Because we need more space for our new inventory, we’re staging a two-for-one sale.”Receiver-focused“You can buy a year’s supply of paper and pay for only six months’ worth during our two-for-one sale.”
10 Hidden Negative Meanings You are wrong(I am right.)You do not understand(You are not very bright.)Your delay(You are at fault.)You forgot to(You are not only inefficient but also stupid and careless.)10
11 Use Bias-Free Language Gender-Biasedfemale attorneywaitressman hoursworkmanImprovedattorneyserverworking hoursworkerBiasedEach employee has his ID card.ImprovedEach employee has an ID card.All employees have ID cards.10
12 Use Courteous Language Less CourteousEveryone must return these forms by January 1.More CourteousPlease return the forms by January 1.This is the second time I’ve had to write!Why can’t you get my account straight?Attached is my previous letter.Please help me straighten out this account.10
13 Use Simple, Familiar Language UnfamiliarWe need to effectuate improvement of ourmanuals to better elucidate our training goals.FamiliarWe need to improve our manuals to clarifyour training goals.Sales reps generally conjecture when makingsales projections for homogeneous territories.Sales reps generally guess when projectingsales in similar territories.10
14 Adapting to Legal Responsibilities Avoid litigation by using especially careful language in four areas:Investment informationSafety informationMarketing informationHuman resources information13
16 Formal Research Methods Access electronically – Internet, databases, CD-ROMsSearch manually – books, articles, and other secondary sourcesInvestigate primary sources – interviews, surveys, focus groupsExperiment scientifically – tests with experimental and control groups2
17 Organizing Data Listing and outlining Grouping ideas into patterns. Direct pattern for receptive audiencesIndirect pattern for unreceptive audiences5
18 Audience Response Determines Pattern of Organization If pleasedIf neutralDIRECT PATTERNGood News orMain IdeaIf mildly interested8
19 Audience Response Determines Pattern of Organization If unwilling oruninterestedIf hostileINDIRECT PATTERNIf displeased ordisappointedBad News orMain Idea8
20 Using a Cluster Diagram to Generate Ideas 1. In the center of a clean sheet of paper, write your topic name and circle it.2. Around the circle, record any topic ideas that pop into your mind.3. Circle each separate area.4. Avoid censoring ideas.5. If ideas seem related, join them with lines; don’t spend time on organization just yet.4
21 Organizing Cluster Diagram Ideas Into Subclusters TipsAnalyze the idea generated in the original cluster diagram.Cross out ideas that are obviously irrelevant; simplify and clarify.Add new ideas that seem appropriate.Study the ideas for similarities.6
22 Organizing Cluster Diagram Ideas Into Subclusters TipsGroup similar ideas into classifications (such as Purpose, Content, Development, and Form).If the organization seems clear at this point, prepare an outline.For further visualization, make subcluster circles around each classification.6
23 Creating Effective Sentences Recognize phrases and clauses.Use short sentences.Emphasize important ideas.Use the active voice for most sentences.Use the passive voice to deemphasize the performer and/or to be tactful.Avoid dangling and misplaced modifiers.11
24 Recognizing Phrases and Clauses Clauses have subjects and verbs; phrases do not.Independent clauses are complete; dependent clauses are not.Phrases and dependent clauses cannot function as sentences.Independent Clause: They were eating cold pizza.Dependent Clause: that they want to return for a refundPhrase: to return for a refund12
25 Using Short Sentences Sentence Length Comprehension Rate 8 words 100%90%80%50%Source: American Press Institute
26 Emphasizing Important Ideas Position the most important idea at the beginning of the sentence.Make sure the most important idea is the subject of the sentence.Place the main idea in a short sentence.14
27 Use the Active Voice for Most Sentences Active voice: We lost money.Active voice: I sent the message yesterday.(The subject is the performer.)15
28 Use the Passive Voice To Deemphasize the Performer and/or To Be Tactful Passive voice: Money was lost (by us).Passive voice: The message was sent yesterday (by me).(Passive voice test: Ask “By whom?” If you can fill in the performer, the verb is probably in the passive voice.)16
29 Effective Paragraphs Drafting effective paragraphs Discuss only one topic in each paragraph.Arrange sentences in a strategic plan.Link ideas to build coherence.Use transitional expressions for coherence.Compose short paragraphs for effective business messages.20
30 Effective Paragraphs Discussing only one topic in each paragraph Group similar ideas together.Start a new paragraph for each new topic.21
31 Arranging Sentences in a Strategic Plan Effective ParagraphsArranging Sentences in a Strategic PlanDirect Plan: main sentence followed by supporting sentences (for defining, classifying, illustrating, and describing ideas)Pivoting Plan: limiting sentences, main sentence, supporting sentences (for comparing and contrasting)22
32 Effective Paragraphs Using transitional expressions for coherence Recommended expressions:additionallyalsoas a resultfor examplein other wordstherefore24
34 Revising for Clarity, Conciseness, and Readability Keep it simple.Keep it conversational.Remove opening fillers.Eliminate redundancies.Reduce compound prepositions.Purge empty words.2
35 Revising for Clarity, Conciseness, and Readability Kick the noun habit.Dump trite “business” phrases.Develop parallelism (balanced construction).Apply graphic highlighting.Measure readability.2
36 Keep it simple. Avoid indirect, pompous language. Poor: It would not be inadvisable for you to affix your signature at this point in time.Improved: You may sign now.
37 Keep it conversational. Formal: Our Accounting Department takes this opportunity to inform you that we have credited your account for the aforementioned sum.Conversational: We have credited your account for $100.
38 Remove opening fillers. Wordy: There are four new menu items we must promote.Improved: We must promote four new menu items.
40 Reduce compound prepositions. at such timeat which timedue to the fact thatinasmuch asReduce to when.Reduce to because.
41 Purge empty words.As for the area of athletic shoes, the degree of profits sagged.This is to inform you that we have a toll-free service line.Not all students who are registered will attend.8
42 Purge empty words.As for the area of athletic shoes, the degree of profits sagged.This is to inform you that we have a toll-free service line.Not all students who are [registered] will attend.8
43 Purge empty words. As for athletic shoes, profits sagged. We have a toll-free service line.Not all [registered] students will attend.8
44 Dump trite "business" phrases. Trite: Pursuant to your request, enclosed please find a job application.Improved: As requested, we have enclosed a job application.
45 Develop parallelism (balanced construction). Not parallel: We can collect information, store it, and later it can be updated.Parallel: We can collect, store, and update information.
46 Use Numbered Lists for “High Skim” Value Follow these steps to archive a document:Select the document.Select a folder.Provide a file name.Click “Save.”
47 Use Bulleted Lists for “High Skim” Value Consumers expect the following information at product Web sites:PriceQualityPerformanceAvailability
48 The Complete Process1. PrewritingAnalyzeAnticipateAdapt
49 The Complete Process 1. Prewriting 2. Writing Analyze Research AnticipateAdapt2. WritingResearchOrganizeCompose
50 The Complete Process 1. Prewriting Analyze Anticipate Adapt 2. Writing ResearchOrganizeCompose3. RevisingReviseProofreadEvaluate
51 1. PrewritingAnalyze: Define your purpose. Select the most appropriate form (channel). Visualize the audience.Anticipate: Put yourself in the reader’s position and predict his or her reaction to this message.Adapt: Consider ways to shape the message to benefit the reader, using his or her language.32
52 2. WritingResearch: Collect data formally and informally. Generate ideas by brainstorming and clustering.Organize: Group ideas into a list or an outline. Select the direct or indirect strategy.Compose: Write first draft, preferably on a computer.33
53 3. RevisingRevise: Revise for clarity, tone, conciseness, and vigor. Revise to improve readability.Proofread: Proofread to verify spelling, grammar, punctuation, and format. Check for overall appearance.Evaluate: Ask yourself whether the final product will achieve its purpose.34
54 Try This Read the following sentence counting the F’s as you go: Federal fuses are the result of years of scientific study combined with the years of experienceWrite the number of F’s Here: _______
55 Try This Now read the sentence backwards counting the F’s: Federal fuses are the result of years of scientific study combined with the years of experienceWrite the number of F’s Here: _______