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9 Consumer Buying Behavior. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.9 | 2 Agenda Level of Involvement and Consumer Problem-Solving Processes.

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Presentation on theme: "9 Consumer Buying Behavior. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.9 | 2 Agenda Level of Involvement and Consumer Problem-Solving Processes."— Presentation transcript:

1 9 Consumer Buying Behavior

2 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.9 | 2 Agenda Level of Involvement and Consumer Problem-Solving Processes Consumer Buying Decision Process Situational Influences on the Buying Decision Process Psychological Influences on the Buying Decision Process Social Influences on the Buying Decision Process

3 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.9 | 3 Introduction: Key Terms Buying Behavior –The decision processes and acts of people involved in buying and using products Consumer Buying Behavior –Buying behavior of people who purchase products for personal use and not for business purposes

4 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.9 | 4 Level of Involvement and Consumer Problem-Solving Processes Level of Involvement –An individual’s intensity of interest in a product and the importance of the product for that person High-involvement –Visible to others –Expensive –High importance Low-involvement –Less expensive –Less risky

5 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.9 | 5 Level of Involvement and Consumer Problem-Solving Processes (cont’d) Routinized Response Behavior –The process used when buying frequently purchased, low-cost items that require little search-and-decision effort Limited Problem Solving –The process that buyers use when purchasing products occasionally or when they need information about an unfamiliar brand in a familiar product category Extended Problem Solving –The process employed when purchasing unfamiliar, expensive, or infrequently bought products Impulse Buying –An unplanned buying behavior resulting from a powerful urge to buy something immediately

6 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.9 | 6 Consumer Buying Decision Process and Possible Influences on the Process FIGURE 9.1

7 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.9 | 7 Consumer Buying Decision Process Problem Recognition –Occurs when a buyer becomes aware of a difference between a desired state and an actual condition –May occur rapidly or slowly Information Search –Internal search Buyers search their memories for information about products that might solve their problem –External search Buyers seek information from outside sources

8 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.9 | 8 This Visine Advertisement Is Focused On Problem Recognition Courtesy of Pfizer, Inc.

9 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.9 | 9 Consumer Buying Decision Process (cont’d) Evaluation of Alternatives –Consideration set A group of brands that the buyer views as alternatives for possible purchase –Evaluative criteria Objective and subjective characteristics that are important to a buyer –Framing the alternatives Describing the alternatives and their attributes in a certain manner to make a particular characteristic appear more important especially to the inexperienced buyer

10 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.9 | 10 Consumer Buying Decision Process (cont’d) Purchase –Choosing the product or brand to be bought based on the outcome of the evaluation stage –The choice of seller may affect the final product selection. –Factors such as terms of sale, price, delivery, and warranties may affect the sale.

11 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.9 | 11 Consumer Buying Decision Process (cont’d) Postpurchase Evaluation –Cognitive dissonance A buyer’s doubts shortly after a purchase about whether the decision was the right one –Buyers are most likely to seek reassurance after the purchase of an expensive, high- involvement product

12 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.9 | 12 What Part of the Consumer Buying Decision Process Does This Olay Ad Focus On? © The Procter & Gamble Company. Used by permission.

13 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.9 | 13 On Which Stage(s) of the Consumer Buying Decision Does This NAPA Ad Focus? Courtesy of NAPA Online.

14 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.9 | 14 Class Exercise In which stage of the consumer buying decision process are each of the following people? 1.A recent college graduate reads Consumer Reports to compare automobile ratings. 2.On the first day of class, a student finds out that a programmable calculator is needed for the course, but she doesn’t own one. 3.After purchasing an evening gown, a woman decides that it is not quite appropriate for her special occasion.

15 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.9 | 15 Class Exercise 4.A car buyer gets a loan to purchase a new car. 5.A teenager compares numerous cell phones and narrows the choice down to two phones. 6.While on the way to work, a person’s automobile stalls and will not start again. 7.At an open-house party, a guest realizes that the host already owns the gift he plans to give. 8.A person receives a sample package of laundry detergent in the mail and uses it to wash a load of clothes.

16 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.9 | 16 Situational Influences on the Buying Decision Process Situational Influences –Factors that can influence a buyer’s purchase decision and may cause the buyer to shorten, lengthen, or terminate the process. Situational Factors –Physical surroundings –Social surroundings –Time perspective –Reason for purchase –Buyer’s momentary mood and condition

17 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.9 | 17 Psychological Influences on the Buying Decision Process Psychological Influences –Factors that in part determine people’s general behavior, thus influencing their behavior as consumers Perception –The process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting information inputs to produce meaning

18 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.9 | 18 Psychological Influences on the Buying Decision Process (cont’d) Selective Exposure –The process of selecting inputs to be exposed to our awareness while ignoring others Selective Distortion –An individual’s changing or twisting of information when it is inconsistent with personal feelings or beliefs Selective Retention –Remembering information inputs that support personal feelings and beliefs and forgetting inputs that do not

19 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.9 | 19 Psychological Influences on the Buying Decision Process (cont’d) Motives –An internal energizing force that directs a person’s behavior toward satisfying needs or achieving goals

20 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.9 | 20 Psychological Influences on the Buying Decision Process (cont’d) Learning –Changes in an individual’s thought processes and behavior caused by information and experience –Behaviors that produce satisfying consequences are likely to be repeated. Consumers learn about products by –experiencing the products personally. –gaining additional product knowledge from seller- provided information. –indirect information from other purchasers/users.

21 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.9 | 21 Psychological Influences on the Buying Decision Process (cont’d) Attitudes –An individual’s enduring evaluation of, feelings about, and behavioral tendencies toward an object or idea

22 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.9 | 22 Psychological Influences on the Buying Decision Process (cont’d) Attitude Scale –A means of measuring consumer attitudes by gauging the intensity of individuals’ reactions to adjectives, phrases, or sentences about an object

23 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.9 | 23 Psychological Influences on the Buying Decision Process (cont’d) Personality and Self-Concept –Personality A set of internal traits and distinct behavioral tendencies that result in consistent patterns of behavior in certain situations –Self-concept (self-image) Perception or view of oneself Lifestyles –Lifestyle An individual’s pattern of living expressed through activities, interests, and opinions

24 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.9 | 24 Social Influences on the Buying Decision Process Social Influences –The forces other people exert on one’s buying behavior Role –Actions and activities that a person in a particular position is supposed to perform based on expectations of the individual and surrounding persons –Multiple role-expectation sets affect behavior. –Roles influence both general and buying behaviors.

25 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.9 | 25 Social Influences on the Buying Decision Process (cont’d) Family Influences –Consumer socialization The process through which a person acquires the knowledge and skills to function as a consumer

26 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.9 | 26 Percent Who Decide or Influence Purchase Decisions Source: Harris Interactive YouthPulse, 2003, as reported in American Demographics, December 2003/January 2004, p.16. Age Group of Decision Makers or Influencers Product Category of Purchase Decision Ages 8-12Ages Clothing/apparel93%89% Movie/Video/DVD93%87% Video games/systems87%78% Groceries84% Sports equipment71%65% Vacation62%69% Software57%77% Vehicles22%61%

27 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.9 | 27 Social Influences on the Buying Decision Process (cont’d) Reference Groups –Any group that positively or negatively affects a person’s values, attitudes, or behavior Membership Aspirational Disassociative Opinion Leader –A knowledgeable, accessible individual who provides information about a specific sphere of interest to followers

28 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.9 | 28 How Do Reference Groups Affect Purchase Decisions? For each of the products below, indicate whether one’s reference group would influence one’s decision to buy the product in general, the type of product within the category, and/or the brand decision. Use more than one X when appropriate. Type of Product Product Within the Brand Product Decision Category Decision Soft drink  Bar soap  Telephone   Jeans   Car   Sweatshirt with college name   DVD player   Bathroom tissue  

29 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.9 | 29 Social Influences on the Buying Decision Process (cont’d) Social Class –An open group of individuals with similar social rank –Individuals in the same social class develop and assume common behavioral patterns. have similar attitudes, values, language patterns, and possessions. –Influences many major life decisions –Influences shopping patterns and spending habits

30 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.9 | 30 Social Influences on the Buying Decision Process (cont’d) Culture –The accumulated values, knowledge, beliefs, customs, objects, and concepts of a society Culture influences buying behavior. Cultural changes affect product development, promotion, distribution, and pricing. Subcultures –Groups of individuals whose characteristic values and behavior patterns are similar and differ from those of the surrounding culture African American Hispanic Asian American

31 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.9 | 31 Subcultural Differences in Movie-Going Behavior In what ways can movie theater marketers use this information? Source: “Now Playing,” American Demographics, September 2001, p. 14.


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