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After the lecture, participants are left fifteen minutes to digest all the phrasal verbs. Then, learners in both groups are given ten minutes to fill.

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Presentation on theme: "After the lecture, participants are left fifteen minutes to digest all the phrasal verbs. Then, learners in both groups are given ten minutes to fill."— Presentation transcript:

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2 After the lecture, participants are left fifteen minutes to digest all the phrasal verbs. Then, learners in both groups are given ten minutes to fill twelve questions, filling in up or off (see Appendix 3). Six of the items are taught in the lecture, and the other six are new for them. 1212

3 Items that evaluate participant’s performance The researchers measure the effectiveness of learning methods for control and experimental group by calculating (1) the correct rate of overall responses (2) the correct rate of taught phrasal verbs questions (3) the correct rate of untaught phrasal verbs questions 13

4 Results Performance of the overall test The overall performance, based on the percent of correct answer, the experimental group obtains 79.44%. This is higher than the control group whose correct rate is 73.88%. Participants in the experimental group can figure out the meanings of idioms based on the related senses, so they can link a literal meaning and idiomatic one. 14

5 Performance of memory retention With respect to the research question two, the experimental group who is taught by conceptual metaphor awareness do not benefit their vocabulary memory retention The experimental group obtains 87.77% correct rate. The control group scores 88.88%. CMA shows no positive effect on the memory retention test. From the participants’ self-report learning phrasal verbs experience, by memorization is the dominant “strategy” for phrasal verbs acquisition. 15

6 Performance of CM mechanisms application As regards the unfamiliar phrasal verbs, the experimental group scores 71.1% comparing to 58.88% for the control group. The results suggested successful application of CMA to cope with untaught phrasal verbs. The experimental group does better on the test, which lies in CMA method as a beneficial strategy to infer and grasp the meanings of unfamiliar phrasal verbs. 16

7 However, although the result shows experimental group outperformed, learners’ self-reports question the teaching method. Three participants from the E.C. said the teaching method is very complicated because they don’t think they can grasp the phrasal verbs until they memorize all the metaphorical usages of up and off. The researchers account for this discrepancy due to participants’ insufficient sense of language and given seldom chance to practice thought and logic in the educational context. Most important of all, the intensity of metaphor awareness they received is insufficient.”. 17

8 Discussion: Alternative teaching materials However, if the teaching material, CMA introduced by Chinese examples, would they believe conceptual metaphors do dwell in their mind? Since some equivalent conceptual metaphors are found in Chinese, the future study can explore the application of Chinese conceptual metaphors as triggers to English phrasal verbs. 18

9 Discussion: Pedagogical implications The advantages of applying CMA into phrasal verbs learning in the language context are as follow. It provides a solution for learners to cope with unfamiliar phrasal verbs. CM reveals the hidden relationship that operates behind phrasal verbs. In addition, CM offers an opportunity to categorize phrasal verbs. That is, learners do not learn individual phrasal verbs by context to context, but acquire a group of phrasal verbs in groups. 19

10 The importance of metaphor awareness is suggested from the researchers Boer 2000, Andreou & Galantomos 2008, who claim conceptual metaphor mechanism lies in people’s deep mind and they are functioned covertly and subconsciously. Thus, the mechanisms are not triggered automatically, but need to be motivated. The curriculum design should pay much attention to motivating learners’ metaphor awareness so as to make learning meaningful and logical. 20

11 Conclusion We address the positive effect of applying conceptual metaphor to teaching phrasal verbs by CM awareness method. The overall performance and metaphor awareness receive confirmations from the results. However, the memory retention offers no support by employing CM awareness teaching method. The study advises the improvement of motivating metaphor awareness by offering alternative teaching material based on participants’ suggestions. 21

12 Most noticeably, the present study breaks through the constraint about learners’ age and language proficiency suggested by the previous studies (Boers, 2000; Andewou & Galantomos, 2008). It proves that adolescents with basic language proficiency will benefits from the application of CMA to phrasal verbs learning. 22

13 Limitation There presents some limitations in the present study. First, conceptual metaphors remain “unsettle issue” (Li, 2004:199). Second, CM is not omnipotent to generalize to all phrasal verbs. Thus, conceptual metaphor should be regarded as a complementary mean (Boers, 1999) instead of omnipotent method. The present study is at the preliminary stage, where the size of the participants should be increased and the performance of participants’ should be evaluated by statistics to strengthen its significance. 23

14 Thanks for your attention. Welcome any comments or questions. 24

15 Publications Yang, Ada Ya-ying & Shelley Ching-yu Hsieh “Animal fixed-expression taboos and their euphemisms in Mandarin Chinese.” 2011 Hawaii International Conference on Arts and Humanities to be held from January 9 toJanuary 12. Lin, Cathy Ya-hua & Shelley Ching-yu Hsieh “A Contrastive Study of Sweet and Sour Metaphor in Chinese and Hakka.” 2010 International Conference on Applied Linguistics (ICAL). National Chiayi University, Chiayi, November

16 More materials about learning figurative language 1. CM: Anger is fire. 2. Triggered by the native language: a. 怒中巨火 b. 火冒三丈 c. 別讓我發火 3. English examples: a. Her temper flared up. b. Those are inflammatory remarks. c. After the argument, Dad was smoldering. d. Your insincere apology just added fuel to the fire. 15

17 1.CM: Food is thought. 2. Triggered by the native language: a. 這些困難的數學問題,令人吃不消。 b. 這場演講很有料。 c. 這場生動的演講,大家聽得津津有味。 3. English examples: a. What my dad said left a bad taste in my mouth. b. I can’t swallow his complicated claim. c. Let me stew over his claim for a while. d. That’s a very meaty book. 16


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