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©Joan Sedita, The Key Vocabulary Routine Big Ideas PowerPoint By Joan Sedita, M.Ed.
©Joan Sedita, Big Idea #1 What is the Key Vocabulary Routine?
©Joan Sedita, What is The Key Vocabulary Routine? Embedded in content instruction Research-based Foundational “routine” that provides consistency from grade to grade, and from class to class
©Joan Sedita, The Routine 1.Preview for difficult vocabulary 2.Use activities that connect vocabulary to background knowledge and related words 3.Select specific words to teach in-depth 4.Identify opportunities to teach word learning strategies 5.Promote word consciousness
©Joan Sedita, Gradual Release of Responsibility I You We Teacher-focused, modeling, direct/explicit instruction Guided practiceWhole-group, small-group, collaborative Independent use by student Students move through the stages at different rates, requiring scaffolding and differentiated instruction.
©Joan Sedita, Step 1: Preview for difficult vocabulary
©Joan Sedita, Why Preview Vocabulary? Activate prior knowledge Clear up misconceptions about a word’s meaning Clarify meaning of known words with multiple meanings Provide some familiarity with unknown words Previewing is more of a comprehension strategy than it is direct teaching of specific words.
©Joan Sedita, Goal of Previewing Goal: to offer temporary, basic familiarity with the meaning of the words in text to be read –Graves: “Introduce the word so that students won’t stumble over it when they see it in an upcoming passage.” It is more about attaching some meaning to a new word than enabling deep learning of words
©Joan Sedita, What to Preview Words or phrases critical to making meaning from the text Words with multiple meanings - focus on the meaning used in the text Figurative language Consider having students identify unfamiliar words to preview
Ways to Preview Provide a list of preview words with user friendly definitions or synonyms Photocopy the text and write in synonyms or short definitions next to unfamiliar words Provide a visual or illustration with labels of unfamiliar vocabulary Have a quick class discussion about some of the preview words – make links to their background knowledge ©Joan Sedita,
©Joan Sedita, Student Knowledge Rating Checklists Beck, McKeown, Kucan, 2002
©Joan Sedita, Step 2: Use activities to connect vocabulary
©Joan Sedita, Why Teach Word Relationships? Schema: mental structure that represents and organizes one’s understanding of a particular topic Vocabulary words are used to represent that knowledge Word learning is most efficient when a connection to existing schema and words can be made
©Joan Sedita, The Four Activities Construct links to existing information and related words ActivityWhen Used Semantic mappingBefore, During, After CategorizingDuring, After Semantic feature analysisDuring, After Synonyms, opposites, and scalingBefore, During, After
©Joan Sedita, Using the 4 Activities Make connections between new and known words Make connections between background knowledge and essential concept words Offer opportunities for rich discussion about words Push students to go beyond memorizing definitions
©Joan Sedita, 1. Semantic Mapping When to use Benefits How it is done Variations
Semantic Mapping: Science
©Joan Sedita, Be ready to share your categories. 2. Categorizing When to use Benefits How it is done Variations
Lines and Angles Line segment Ray Point Vertex Vertical Congruent Adjacent Complimentary Supplementary Parallel Perpendicular Intersecting Bisect Midpoint Endpoint Quadrilaterals Parallelogram Rectangle Rhombus Square Trapezoid Polygons Triangle Quadrilateral Pentagon Hexagon Heptagon Optagon Nonagon Decagon Circle Chord Radius Diameter Central angle Center Semicircle Triangles Acute Obtuse Right Isosceles Equilateral Scalene Outliers Absolute value Exponents Expanded form
©Joan Sedita, 3. Semantic Feature Analysis When to use Benefits How it is done Variations
©Joan Sedita, 4. Synonyms, Opposites and Scaling When to use Benefits How it is done Variations
©Joan Sedita, Step 3: Select specific words to teach in-depth
©Joan Sedita, Why Teach Some Words In-Depth? Previewing vocabulary is different from directly teaching specific words Essential content words must be taught in-depth Children with weak vocabularies especially benefit from in-depth instruction for some words
©Joan Sedita, Selecting Words Factors to consider: –Words essential to understanding major concepts of the content topic –Words that are practical to know –Words that students are likely to encounter again as they learn more about the content topic Different selections for different groups of students
©Joan Sedita, Suggestions from The Key Vocabulary Routine Words essential to instructional goal Concept words to build schema Words frequently encountered in other content Words unlikely to be learned independently through context or word parts Words that provide opportunities to practice use of context and word parts Words that are unique and increase student curiosity
3-Tier Model: McKeown & Beck ©Joan Sedita,
Teach Everything About A Word Include: –spelling and phonemes –syllables –opposite/antonyms –synonyms –category/related words –examples/non-examples –multiple meanings –illustration –use in sentence or context
©Joan Sedita, Templates for Teaching a Word In-Depth Graphic Organizers: –Frayer/four square (Frayer et al. 1969) –Concept Definition Map (Schwartz, 1988) –Two-column notes (Sedita, 1989)
©Joan Sedita, Frayer/Four Square
©Joan Sedita, Concept Definition Map
©Joan Sedita, Two-Column Notes Lexicon Definition: a language user’s knowledge of words Part of speech: noun Synonym: dictionary Antonym: NA Category/related words: vocabulary; words; definitions Example: Glossary in a textbook Non-example: Multiplication tables; numbers Multiple Meanings: inventory or record; wordbook Sentence: Because the boy read every night, he developed a large lexicon and knew more words than most of his friends. Illustration:
©Joan Sedita, Conventional definitions are difficult to understand Asking students to look up definitions and write them in sentences is NOT effective (Scott & Nagy, 1997; Miller & Gildea (1987) What to teach about dictionary definitions –How to look up words –How to use different parts of an entry –The need to select appropriate meaning for the context Alternative dictionaries Dictionary Definitions
©Joan Sedita, Re-Writing a Definition in the Students’ Own Words A good definition should have: 1.A linking verb 2.A superordinate or category for the word 3.Relative clauses that contain a critical attribute A ___ is (a) ___ that (is, does) ___. (Moats, 2005)
©Joan Sedita, Examples An eagle is a large bird that soars in the sky, catches small prey, and has been named as the symbol of the United States. To yell is to make a loud sound by using one’s voice, such as a scream. To be wealthy is to have a lot of material possessions such as money or valuables. Something magical is mysterious and related to supernatural forces, charms, or spells. To do something curtly is to do it in a rude and abrupt way.
©Joan Sedita, Step 4: Identify opportunities to teach word learning strategies Use of context to determine word meaning Use of word parts to determine word meaning
©Joan Sedita, Teaching Use of Context Provide direct instruction in how to use the context Provide many examples from reading Teach students that the context does not always work
©Joan Sedita, How to Teach Context Graves’ 4 steps Types of context clues –Definition –Description –Synonym –Comparison –Contrast –Example
©Joan Sedita, Teach Word Parts Large percentage of words learned after grade 3 are derived from Greek or Latin roots (Carlisle, 2007) 60% of unfamiliar words in middle school books are derived words that can be figured out by word parts and context (Nagy & Anderson, 1984)
©Joan Sedita, Word Parts BASE/ROOT WORDS + SUFFIXES/PREFIXES Undeniable (un - deny - able) Morphemes: the smallest units of language that convey or modulate meaning Bound morphemes: cannot stand alone (s, ed, ment) Free morphemes: can stand alone (cat, walk, govern)
©Joan Sedita, Word Family: port (L. to carry) portability portable portableness portably portage portapack portative ported porter porterage porting support supportable supportably supporter supporting supportive deport deportable deportation deported deportee deporting deportment export exportable exportation exported exporter exporting portfolio import importable importability importance important importantly importation imported importer Importing report reportable reportage reported reportedly reporter reporting transport transportable transportability transportation transporter transporting transportive
©Joan Sedita, What to Teach Prefixes: directly teach 20 most used Roots: teach how roots are used, but not a specific list Suffixes: teach how suffixes work, but not a specific list
©Joan Sedita, Most Common Prefixes un- 26% re- 14% in-, im-, il-, ir- 11% dis- 7% en-, em- 4% non- 4% in-, im- (in) 3% over- 3% mis- 3% sub- 3% pre- 3% inter- 3% fore- 3% de- 2% trans- 2% super- 1% semi- 1% anti- 1% mid- 1% under- 1% ALL OTHERS 3% p
©Joan Sedita, Numerical Prefixes MeaningGreekLatin onemonouni twodibi, du, duo threetri fourtetraquad (quart) fivepentaquint sixhexasext eightocto tendecadeci hundredcent thousandkilomille part, halfhemisemi manypolymulti Ebbers, 2006
©Joan Sedita, Step 5: Identify opportunities to promote word consciousness
©Joan Sedita, Developing an Interest in Words “Teachers should encourage children to become WORD COLLECTORS, people who notice new words and scoop them up for their personal collections when they hear, see or read them.” National Center on Education and the Economy, 2001
Word- Conscious Schools Principal’s “word of the week” “New Words” boxes or jars in classrooms Conscious use of specific words for multiple exposures ©Joan Sedita, Please use these words in our classroom: _________
©Joan Sedita, Word Play “Words and phrases can simultaneously feel good on the tongue, sound good to the ear, and incite a riot of laughter in the belly. Verbal phenomena such as homophones and homographs; idioms, clichés, and puns; and onomastics (the story of names) offer myriad opportunities for investigating language.” (Graves, 2006)
Word Play Homophones and homographs Word puns, jokes and riddles Word games (Scattergories, Outburst, Pictionary, Charades, Password, Scrabble, Boggle) Word manipulations (anagrams, palindromes) Word expressions (idioms, proverbs, slang) ©Joan Sedita,
Vocabulary Word Walls Choose words from content Update frequently Refer to them on a regular basis
©Joan Sedita, Classroom Reading Materials Wide reading: a lot of reading and a lot of topics Word conscious classrooms need a wide variety of books and material to read Provide opportunities for students to take home books
Coach: An Essential Component ©Joan Sedita, Training Components Initial training Follow up On-site coaches Guided Practice Guided Practice Small Group Sharing Small Group Sharing Observe Co- teach Observe Co- teach Admin Training
©Joan Sedita, Professional development topics and instructional materials available: The Key Comprehension Routine The Key Vocabulary Routine The ANSWER Key to Open Response Writing Keys to Learning Literacy Planning K
©Joan Sedita, The Key Vocabulary Routine developed by Joan Sedita
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