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CONTEXT CLUES CONTEXT CLUES BY BY Mr. Gonzalez Mr. Gonzalez Language Arts & Reading Teacher Language Arts & Reading Teacher John I. Smith K-12 Center.

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Presentation on theme: "CONTEXT CLUES CONTEXT CLUES BY BY Mr. Gonzalez Mr. Gonzalez Language Arts & Reading Teacher Language Arts & Reading Teacher John I. Smith K-12 Center."— Presentation transcript:

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2 CONTEXT CLUES CONTEXT CLUES BY BY Mr. Gonzalez Mr. Gonzalez Language Arts & Reading Teacher Language Arts & Reading Teacher John I. Smith K-12 Center John I. Smith K-12 Center

3 Title: Context Clues Unit Title: Context Clues Unit The students will be able to: The students will be able to: 1) recognize different types of context clues 1) recognize different types of context clues 2) use context clues to determine the meaning of an unfamiliar word; 2) use context clues to determine the meaning of an unfamiliar word; 3) analyze words, phrases, and word relationships to determine meaning; 3) analyze words, phrases, and word relationships to determine meaning; 4) analyze the context surrounding a word with multiple meanings to determine the correct meaning of the word. 4) analyze the context surrounding a word with multiple meanings to determine the correct meaning of the word. Reading Standards Workshop Activity

4 Concept map WHAT ARE CONTEXT CLUES? Context Clues

5 How Do You Guess The Meaning Of An Unfamiliar Word? There are words or phrases around an unfamiliar word that can help you understand the meaning of a new word. There are words or phrases around an unfamiliar word that can help you understand the meaning of a new word. These words and phrases are called context clues. These words and phrases are called context clues. If you learn how to use these clues, you can save yourself a trip to the dictionary, increase your vocabulary, and improve your reading comprehension. If you learn how to use these clues, you can save yourself a trip to the dictionary, increase your vocabulary, and improve your reading comprehension.

6 CONTEXT CLUES CONTEXT CLUES THERE ARE DIFFERENT TYPES OF CONTEXT CLUES: Definition Synonym or restatement Antonym or contrast Example Comparison List or Series Cause and Effect Inference or general context

7 TYPE DESCRIPTION CLUES ”SIGNAL WORDS” EXAMPLE 1. Definition The author provides a direct (explicit) definition of an unknown word in the sentence. Is, are Is /are called Is / are known as Is defined as Means, Or, Refers to - Martha is a curator, a person who is responsible for looking after a museum’s collection. -Entomology is the study of insects. - Archeology is the scientific study of prehistoric cultures by excavation of their remains. 2. Synonym or Restatement The author uses a word having the same or nearly the same meaning as another word or other words in a sentence. Commas, Semicolon ; Dashes - Parenthesis ( ) Sometimes signal words or, that is, or in other words are used. - Carnivores, that is, meat eaters, are the top of the food chain. - My best friend squandered all his money; his drinking and gambling wasted all his earnings. -After seeing the picture of the starving children, we all felt compassion or pity for their suffering. - After a time, glaciers, or slowly moving rivers of ice, formed over many parts of the Earth. 3. Antonym or Contrast The author uses another word or phrase that means the opposite of an unfamiliar word Words used are: But, however, although, otherwise, unless, instead of, on the contrary, on the other hand, while, unlike, different from -Mike’s parrot was loquacious, but Maria’s said very little. -The gentleman was portly, but his wife was thin. -While Luis is hardworking, his indolent brother spends most of the time watching TV or sitting around with friends. 4. Comparison In comparison clues, the author uses words and phrases that have the same or similar meaning as an unfamiliar word. Words used are: like, as, similar to, in the same way, likewise, resembling, too, also, similarly -My brother is enthralled by birds similar to the way that I am fascinated by insects. - The stench of the old shoes was like the smell of garbage. TYPES OF CONTEXT CLUES

8 TYPE DESCRIPTION CLUES ”SIGNAL WORDS” EXAMPLE 5. Example/ Explanation The author provides examples or additional explanations or summaries to help you understand an unfamiliar word. The word is cleared up by giving an example. For example For instance Including Such as Especially, Specifically To illustrate -The archeologist found different amulets, such as a rabbit’s foot and bags of herb. -Paula was suspended from school because of several infractions of the rules, including smoking in the bathroom and dressing improperly. - Celestial bodies, such as the sun, moon, and stars, are governed by predictable laws. 6. Cause and Effect The meaning of an unknown word depends on the cause/effect relationship with other words in the text. As a result, Due to Accordingly Because, Since, So Consequently For this reason Hence, if … then -Since no one came to the first meeting, attendance for the second one is mandatory for all staff. - Because the conflagration was aided by wind, it was so destructive that every building in the area was completely burned to the ground. 7. List or Series The unfamiliar word is included in a series of related words that give an idea of the word’s meaning. Look for a list of words -North American predators include grizzly bears, pumas, wolves, and foxes. -The debris in the stadium stands included numerous paper cups, ticket stubs, sandwich wrappings, and cigarette butts. 8. Inference or General Context The meaning of an unfamiliar word can be inferred (guessed) from the description of a situation. The author provides non-specific clues, often spread over the sentence or number of sentences. Look for clues over several words or sentences -The monkey’s vociferous chatter made me wish I had earplugs. - Katie’s belligerence surprised everyone. She threw her book across the room, glared at Chris, and then pushed him to the floor.

9 1) Armadillos are unusual mammals that are widespread in parts of South America and in the Southern part of the United States. They get their name from the Spanish word armado, which means one that is armed, because of the armor covering their bodies. There are 20 species that include the nine-banded armadillo, the giant armadillo, the apara, the fairy armadillo, the pichi, and the naked-tailed armadillo. They live in burrows that they dig with their sharp front claws in open grasslands and tropical forests, but they are unable to survive in arid areas such as deserts, or in very cold areas. The nine-banded armadillo, the species found in Florida, is the only armadillo that can swim. It inflates its stomach and intestines with air to keep itself buoyant. It also can cross a small river by holding its breath for up to six minutes and walking on the river bottom. 2) Many mammals are active primarily during the day, but armadillos are nocturnal. They have a varied diet, eating insects or invertebrates, plants, and small vertebrates, such as snakes and lizards. They sometimes feed on carrion; that is, rotting animal flesh. The giant armadillo of South America is even said to have dug into flesh graves to eat corpses. Armadillos’ main food sources are ants and termites. They dig into ant runs or termite mounds with their sharp claws and use their long, sticky tongues to extract insects. The nine-banded armadillo eats up to 40,000 ants at one feeding. 3) The nine-banded armadillo mates in July and August, but the egg does not become implanted in the uterine wall for about three months. This process, in which development of the embryo does not take place immediately, is called delayed implantation. Once the embryo starts forming, the gestation period is 120 days. The young are then born in the spring when food is more plentiful. The nine-banded armadillo has four in a litter. The young are identical quads and always of the same sex because all four develop from the same egg. All four are attached by umbilical cords to the same placenta. The placenta is the area of the uterine wall specialized for transferring food, etc. between the blood of the mother and that of the embryo. This kind of multiple births is rare in other mammals, but it is rule for nine-banded armadillos. 4) Armadillos are covered with bony plates of armor. These plates are hinged so that the armadillo can roll itself into an armored roll to protect its soft underparts and limbs from predators. Armadillos appear to be hairless at first glance, but as with elephants, a closer look reveals that most species have sparse hair on their bodies. 5) The population of armadillos has dwindled in South America, mainly because their habitat has been destroyed by the expansion of agriculture. In the United States, however, the population of armadillos has not dwindled. Many are killed each year on highways, but this has not caused a significant drop in the population. In fact, in some areas they have become agricultural pests because they dig up so many crops in their quest for insects. The armadillo is an interesting mammal. Watch for it as you travel around Florida.

10 Context Clues Chart for the Text “Armadillos” WORD MY DEFINITION CONTEXT CLUE TYPE OF CONTEXT CLUE 1) apara 2) arid 3) buoyant 4) nocturnal 5) carrion 6) placenta

11 Context Clues Chart for the Text “Armadillos” WORD MY DEFINITION CONTEXT CLUE TYPE OF CONTEXT CLUE 7) sparse 8) dwindled 9) 10) 11) 12)

12 DEFINITION DEFINITION  Writers often define a word after they use it. They use words and phrases such as means, is, refers to, and are called to signal that a definition is to follow.

13 Examples of Definition Context Clues EXAMPLES:EXAMPLES:  Entomology is the study of insects.  Archaeology is the scientific study of prehistoric cultures by excavation of their remains.  The cattle was disturbed by a pack of coyotes, small wolves that live in the western United States.  Broad, flat noodles that are served with sauce or butter are called fettuccine.

14 SYNONYM or RESTATEMENT The meaning is usually right after the unfamiliar word and often separated from the rest of the sentence with commas, dashes, or parentheses; sometimes, or, that is, or in other words is used. A synonym may also be set off with a pair of dashes, a pair of parentheses, or a pair of commas before and after it. The meaning is usually right after the unfamiliar word and often separated from the rest of the sentence with commas, dashes, or parentheses; sometimes, or, that is, or in other words is used. A synonym may also be set off with a pair of dashes, a pair of parentheses, or a pair of commas before and after it.

15 Look at the following cases: EXAMPLES : EXAMPLES : Carnivores, that is, meat eaters, are at the top ofCarnivores, that is, meat eaters, are at the top of the food chain. the food chain. My opponent's argument is fallacious, misleading – plain wrong..My opponent's argument is fallacious, misleading – plain wrong.. Ashamed of his flaccid –flabby – muscles, Glenn joined the local gym.Ashamed of his flaccid –flabby – muscles, Glenn joined the local gym. My best friend squandered all his money; his drinking and gambling wasted all his earnings.My best friend squandered all his money; his drinking and gambling wasted all his earnings. Christina’s use of curses and personal attacks against the waitress mortified – embarrassed – everyone.Christina’s use of curses and personal attacks against the waitress mortified – embarrassed – everyone.

16 EXAMPLE Context Clues EXAMPLE Context Clues The unfamiliar word is cleared up by giving an example; for instance, for example,such as, like, including, consisting of may be used as signals. The unfamiliar word is cleared up by giving an example; for instance, for example,such as, like, including, consisting of may be used as signals. EXAMPLE:  The archeologist found different amulets, such as a rabbit’s foot and bags of herbs, near the ancient altar.  Celestial bodies, such as the sun, moon, and stars, are governed by predictable laws.

17 OTHER EXAMPLES Some creatures can regenerate parts of themselves, such as a starfish growing a new arm or a lizard growing a new tail.Some creatures can regenerate parts of themselves, such as a starfish growing a new arm or a lizard growing a new tail. Paula was suspended from school because of several infractions of the rules, including smoking in the bathroom and dressing improperly.Paula was suspended from school because of several infractions of the rules, including smoking in the bathroom and dressing improperly. My uncle often has had some embarrassing mishaps, such as back his car into the side of his boss’s Honda and trying to walk through a glass door.My uncle often has had some embarrassing mishaps, such as back his car into the side of his boss’s Honda and trying to walk through a glass door. In the past month, we have had almost every type of precipitation, including rain, snow, sleet, and hail.In the past month, we have had almost every type of precipitation, including rain, snow, sleet, and hail. Toxic materials, such as arsenic, asbestos, pesticides, and lead, can cause bodily damage.Toxic materials, such as arsenic, asbestos, pesticides, and lead, can cause bodily damage.

18 ANTONYM or CONTRAST ANTONYM or CONTRAST The unfamiliar word is shown to be different from or unlike another word, and is often an opposite; but, however, although, otherwise, unless, instead of, on the contrary, in contrast, yet, on the other hand, as opposed to, while, unlike, never or not may be used to signal contrast. EXAMPLE:  Mike’s parrot was loquacious, but Maria’s said very little.  Instead of living with other people, she chose to be a recluse.

19 MORE EXAMPLES of ANTONYM CONTEXT CLUES The coach takes every opportunity to reprimand his players; yet he ignores every chance to praise them.The coach takes every opportunity to reprimand his players; yet he ignores every chance to praise them. Julie Ann refused to remain illiterate, instead she worked to become well-educated.Julie Ann refused to remain illiterate, instead she worked to become well-educated. The employee received not a commendation but a rebuke for working overtime.The employee received not a commendation but a rebuke for working overtime. While Luis is hardworking, his indolent brother spends most of the time watching TV or sitting around with friends.While Luis is hardworking, his indolent brother spends most of the time watching TV or sitting around with friends.

20 COMPARISON COMPARISON The unfamiliar word is shown to be the same as or like another word; too, like, as, similar to, or in the same way may be used to signal the comparison. The unfamiliar word is shown to be the same as or like another word; too, like, as, similar to, or in the same way may be used to signal the comparison. EXAMPLE: *My brother is enthralled by birds similar to the way that I am fascinated by to the way that I am fascinated by insects. insects.

21 LIST OR SERIES LIST OR SERIES The unfamiliar word is included in a The unfamiliar word is included in a series of related words that give an series of related words that give an idea of the word’s meaning. idea of the word’s meaning. EXAMPLE: *North American predators include grizzly bears, pumas, wolves, and foxes. * The debris in the stadium stands included numerous paper cups, ticket stubs, sandwich wrappings, and cigarette butts.

22 CAUSE AND EFFECT The meaning of an unfamiliar word The meaning of an unfamiliar word is signaled by a cause-and-effect is signaled by a cause-and-effect relationship between ideas in the relationship between ideas in the text. text. EXAMPLE:  Because the conflagration was aided by wind, it was so destructive that every building in the area was completely burned to the ground.

23 INFERENCE or GENERAL CONTEXT (DESCRIPTION) The meaning of an unfamiliar word The meaning of an unfamiliar word can be inferred from the description can be inferred from the description of a situation or experience. of a situation or experience. EXAMPLE: *The monkey’s vociferous chatter made me wish I had earplugs. * The newly weds agreed to be very frugal in their shopping because they wanted to save enough money to buy a house. * Katie’s belligerence surprised everyone. She threw her book across the room, glared at Chris, and then pushed him to the floor.

24 CONTEXT CLUES PRACTICE Read each sentence or paragraph and circle Read each sentence or paragraph and circle the correct answer. the correct answer. tome 1.The archeologist carefully removed the tome from its ancient resting and proceeded to read the pages related to marriage in What does the word tome probably mean? ancient Greece. What does the word tome probably mean? a. Pen b. weapon c. book d. sausage 2.The Navajo language is an unwritten language of extreme complexity with no alphabet or symbols, and is spoken only on the lands of the Navajo Nation in the American Southwest. During World War II a Navajo code was created for the U.S. Navy. This virtually code was virtually undecipherable to anyone except Navajo What does the word virtually probably mean? speaking persons. What does the word virtually probably mean? a. Pleasant b. almost c. never d. always

25 CONTEXT CLUES PRACTICE Cont. 3. Lakes occupy less than two percent of the Earth’s surface, yet sustain they help sustain life. For instance, lakes give us fish to eat, irrigate What does the word sustain crops, and generate electrical power. What does the word sustain probably mean? a. support b. obstruct c. prolong d. destroy pioneered 4. The ancient Greeks pioneered many of the kinds of writing we consider standard today. They wrote speeches, plays, poems, books about science and learning, long histories of the things What does the word pioneered probably that happened to them. What does the word pioneered probablymean? a. complicated b. developed c. destroyed d. explored

26 CONTEXT CLUES PRACTICE Cont. prominent What does the word prominent probably mean? 5. Fifty-five mostly prominent, male delegates attended the Philadelphia Convention in About seventy-five percent of the delegates had served in Congress and others were important people in their home states. These men are often referred to as the Framers of the Constitution. What does the word prominent probably mean? a. unimportant b. unknown c. common d. important 6. Bats that eat fruit and nectar spread seeds and help flowers thriveWhat grow. Without bats many important plants would not thrive. What does the word thrive probably mean? does the word thrive probably mean? a. flourish b. die c. wither d. deteriorate

27 THE END THE END QUESTIONS? QUESTIONS?


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