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Homer The Iliad. Homer’s Background Known as “The Poet” Legend as a blind bard Symbolic blindness Greeks contrasted inner vision with physical vision.

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Presentation on theme: "Homer The Iliad. Homer’s Background Known as “The Poet” Legend as a blind bard Symbolic blindness Greeks contrasted inner vision with physical vision."— Presentation transcript:

1 Homer The Iliad

2 Homer’s Background Known as “The Poet” Legend as a blind bard Symbolic blindness Greeks contrasted inner vision with physical vision

3 Homer’s Style Special formulaic language – fixed and recurring epithets “Swift-footed Achilleus” “Wine-dark sea” Beginning in medias res – in the middle of things Calls on a muse to inspire Fondness for lists (genealogies and catalogues) Oral way to organize information To give credit, immortalize

4 How did the Trojan War Start? King Peleus and Thetis (a sea nymph) – their wedding All the gods were invited Except Eris (goddess of discord) Who wants her at a wedding??? Angry, Eris tossed golden apple among the guests “To the fairest”

5 Trojan War continued Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite claimed the prize Zeus chose Paris (Trojan prince) to decide

6 Trojan War Continued Each goddess tried to bribe Paris Hera: King of Europe and Asia Athena: Wisdom and skill in war Aphrodite: the most beautiful woman in the world Paris picks……………

7 Trojan War continued Aphrodite Hera and Athena now hate Paris Become allies to the Greeks

8 Archetypes!!!!!!! Apple – temptation, cause of discord The failing of man – tempted by women Man’s character flaw (lust, weakness) causes bloodshed and turmoil

9 Trojan War continued Helen (Greek) was the most beautiful woman alive Married to Menelaus, king of Sparta (Greek) Paris (Troy) is a guest at Menelaus’ court “Steals” Helen Menelaus gets help from his brother, Agamemnon, king of Mycenae Troy vs Sparta, Mycenaean / Greek

10 Real Sacking of Troy 1200 BCE Last attempt of the Mycenaean Empire to remain in power Mycenaeans arrived in Greece around 2100 BCE and flourished from 1600 BCE to 1200 BCE 1100 BCE – empire had vanished 300 years of Dark Age What brought the Greeks out? Alphabet, adapted from the Phoenicians

11 The Iliad 10 th year of the war when the poem opens Actions happens during 51 days, mostly during 4 days Why? It’s about the rage of Achilles and the consequences of his rage

12 Who is Achilles? Leader of the Myrmidons From northern Greece Prophecy: Stay home and live a long life / Go to war and lead a short life, but be remembered and honored by all City-states loosely joined to together for war booty/fame Different armies followed different Greek leaders

13 Beginning of the Iliad Greek army besieging Troy Greeks are stricken by plague, sent by Apollo (Troy) Why? Agamemnon (Greek) refused to return a captive girl (Trojan) who turned out to be the daughter of Apollo’s priest

14 Beginning of the Iliad and Achilles Agamemnon finally gives her back Agamemnon steals Achilles (Greek) concubine, Briseis (Trojan) Achilles refuses to fight Achilles is the best of all Greeks, strongest Yet, doesn’t have the most power Greeks can’t win without Achilles

15 Achilles Why is he the best, the strongest? Thetis (sea nymph) is his mom She dipped him in the river Styx = immortality Held onto his heel “Achilles heel”

16 The Iliad, Book 18 Greek situation without Achilles is BAD! Finally, Agamemnon offers to give up Briseis and add lots of loot Achilles says no way (pouting) Greek situation worsens – morale is low Agamemnon, Diomedes, and Odysseus are wounded Achilles says, “Nope. You stink.”

17 The Iliad, Book 18 - Patroklus Patroklus – Achilles best friend Wears Achilles armor into battle Increase morale for the Greeks Decrease morale for the Trojans Patroklus is doing great Apollo (Troy) intervenes Helps Hector kill Patroklus

18 The Iliad, Book 18 – Armor and Body Hector takes Achilles armor – BIG DEAL Greeks and Trojans fight over Patroklus’ body – BIG DEAL

19 The Iliad, Book 18 – Achilles’ Anger Achilles is VERY upset at Patroklus’s death Blames himself Cries out to his mom I wish you had stayed with the immortals; your pain will be great Why? He must avenge his friend’s death Prophecy: after Hector dies, Achilles will die

20 The Iliad, Book 18 – Achilles’ Anger Thetis (mom) to Achilles – don’t leave without your armor! Athena protects Achilles while he gets Patroklus Trojans see Achilles and want to retreat Hector says – No way, let’s get them! Greek Culture: You can’t escape your fate. The only thing that singles out greatness to your personal actions in a chaotic world.

21 Book 24 – Achilles’ Anger Funeral for Patroklus Achilles drags Hector around the Patroklus Apollo protects Hector’s body from decay

22 Book 24 – Gods argue Some say, “Enough” – Hermes should steal Hector’s body Hera, Poseidon, and Athena say – No way! Hera and Athena – hate Trojans (Paris) Poseidon – hates Trojans / offended by the Trojans

23 Book 24 – Gods argue Apollo: Hector sacrificed to all of you AND, Achilles is acting out of pride Hera: Hector is mortal / Achilles is half god Zeus: Hector is really a good guy Can’t steal him because Thetis is watching (Achilles’ mom) Send Priam with gifts / protected by Hermes

24 Book 24 – Why? Why does the Iliad end with the funeral of Hector? What are the culminating events? What is this story REALLY about? What is realized through Hector and Achilles?

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