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Virginia Driver Education

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Presentation on theme: "Virginia Driver Education"— Presentation transcript:

1 Virginia Driver Education
Module Three Vision, Vehicle Balance and Laws of Nature

2 With a Partner Discuss and write down all the pre-driving checks that you should perform once you are in your vehicle (assume you are already buckled in). Next, discuss and write down all the steps to take as you exit your vehicle.

3 Topic 1 - Starting Tasks Check/set park brake (P) and place
Right foot on brake pedal, heel on floor Left foot on “dead pedal” for balance Key in ignition, and turn toward start Check alert, warning lights and gauges Adjust ventilation, accessories, etc Turn headlights on

4 Securing the Vehicle Find a LEGAL, safe parking place
Stop and set parking brake Shift gear selector to (P)ark (Shift to Reverse if Manual Transmission) Close windows Turn off accessories Turn ignition switch to “off” Lock ignition switch and remove key Unfasten occupant restraints

5 Exiting the Vehicle Check traffic flow to rear prior to opening door
Monitor door swing into adjacent lane or when parked next to another vehicle Exit quickly to avoid conflict with traffic Lock doors Walk toward rear of the vehicle facing traffic

6 Topic 2 - Vision and Driving
Drivers base about 90% of all driving decisions on what they see, and % on what they hear or feel Drivers must be able to look far enough ahead to make good decisions about speed, lane position, signs, signals, markings, and potential hazards Drivers must be able to see near and far--close enough to read the speedometer, and far enough ahead to see/adjust for hazards

7 With a Partner... Discuss and write down:
Anything that can blur your vision when driving. What can you do to enhance your vision when driving? Where should you be looking when you are driving?

8 Effective Use of Visual Fields
The Three Visual Fields Fovea Vision Visual Lead, Targeting, Signs, Signals Central Referencing, Path of Travel Peripheral Vision Motion and Color Changes

9 The Fovea Vision Area Located at the center of the central vision area, the fovea is a small part of the retina and is responsible for our highest visual acuity

10 Central Vision An area 35 to 38 degrees around foveal vision used for:
Central Vision Area (Inner Fringe) An area 35 to 38 degrees around foveal vision used for: Referencing Vehicle Position to Roadway Viewing Path of Travel

11 Central Vision at Night
The human eye’s field of vision is much smaller without the help of natural light Depth perception, visual acuity, and color recognition are all compromised at night Minimize glare by looking at the bottom right of the road to avoid approaching headlights Keep it dark in the car Slow down to give yourself longer to react

12 Approximately 90 degrees of vision to each side
Peripheral Vision Approximately 90 degrees of vision to each side Increases total field of vision to about and is used to see: Objects to the side Movement and color changes to the side

13 Peripheral Vision and the Driving Task
Drivers use peripheral vision to: See color and object movement See signal changes, road signs, warning lights on the dashboard Monitor traffic Stay within the lane

14 Night Time Peripheral Vision
Is reduced dramatically due to lack of light to retina and glare While Foveal and Central Vision are also reduced, they become more critical for searching for problems

15 With a partner: What would you see using Fovea, Central, and Peripheral Vision?

16 Vision is Affected by: Smoke Speed Age Fatigue Dirty Windshield Drugs
Poor Windshield Wipers Poor night vision Night Blindness Speed Fatigue Drugs Poor weather Darkness Glare Inattention

17 Depth Perception Need both eyes to judge the distance between two objects Depth perception allows you to: judge gaps in traffic when turning, merging, or passing judge distance when approaching a vehicle or obstruction

18 Poor Depth Perception Stop too far from the stop line or intersection
Stop too close to vehicles ahead Move into gaps that are too small Look for gaps that are larger than needed to perform a maneuver Follow other vehicles at unsafe following distance Hit parked cars when parking Have “close calls” when entering traffic, passing, etc.

19 As speed increases Central vision decreases and blurs
Peripheral vision decreases Changes in steering exaggerate vehicle movement MOST IMPORTANTLY: VISION FIELDS NARROW

20 Ways to Improve the Vision Fields
Clean windows—inside and out Clean lights—be sure they work Check defroster and wiper blades Remove any objects that interfere with vision Adjust mirrors properly Keep sunglasses, flashlight, windshield scraper in vehicle

21 Line-of-sight is the distance you can see in your path of travel

22 Line-of-Sight (LOS) Restrictions
Vision is blocked, speed and position adjustments may be needed until LOS is restored

23 The space the vehicle will occupy while traveling to the target area
Path-of-Travel (POT) The space the vehicle will occupy while traveling to the target area

24 Examples of Path-of-Travel Restrictions
Space is not available for the vehicle Narrow lane and no shoulder Vehicle stopped or blocking intersection

25 “Target” Far Ahead in the Path of Travel
Identify the target in this driver’s path of travel A “Target” is an object or place far ahead in the center of your path of travel

26 Target AREA Provides the BIG Picture
The Target area is the area drivers must scan to the left and right of the target Target Area

27 The Pavement Around Your Vehicle You Cannot See From the Driver’s Seat
The driver cannot see anything on the ground in the area outlined above—cars are used to show the size of this area

28 Determining Driver Blind Areas
Marker (foot or cone) To do this: Have someone stand outside of the car and continue to back up until you can see their feet. You will be surprised at how far they have to go!

29 Using Lane Position to Maximize LOS
1 Select the lane position that gives you the best line of sight and safest path of travel Lane positions are based upon an average lane size of 12-feet wide, and a vehicle 6-feet wide 2 3 4 5

30 Lane Position 1 2-3 Feet 2-3 Feet
Positioned in the center of lane with an equal buffer of space on either side

31 Lane Position 2 3-6 Inches Allows for 6 feet of space to the right of the vehicle. Used to prepare for a left turn or when avoiding a problem to the right of the vehicle.

32 Lane Position 3 3-6 Inches Allows for 6 feet of space to the left of the vehicle. Used to prepare for a right turn or when avoiding a problem to the left of the vehicle.

33 Lane Positions 4 and 5 4 5 Lane positions 4 and 5 – straddling the line to avoid a problem within a lane

34 Topic 3 - Basic Maneuvers -- Steering
Holding the upper half of the wheel can result in excessive steering, air bag injuries, and upper body fatigue Hands located on lower half of the wheel offers: Relaxed, balanced control Reduces unwanted steering wheel movement Improves stability by lowering the body’s center of gravity

35 Hand-to-Hand/Push-Pull Steering Hand-to-Hand Steering/Push-Pull
Right Turn Left Hand Pushes Up from 8 to 11 Right Turn Right Hand Pulls Down from 1 to 4

36 Hand-Over-Hand Steering Used at Speeds below 15 mph
Used for slow, tight turns - Arms cross on the top 1/3 of the wheel until desired path of travel is reached Left Turn/left hand Left hand pulls down, then reaches up to about theo’clock position and continues to pull down to the left Left Turn/right hand Right Hand pushes up to about the 11 o’clock position

37 One-Hand Steering Is used when:
Backing straight--hand holds top of wheel. Backing a trailer--hand holds bottom of wheel. Backing Position

38 Covering the Accelerator
Used for a smooth transition from braking to accelerating Allows the vehicle to coast which may speed up or slow down the vehicle Permits the driver to be prepared for any needed acceleration

39 Acceleration Techniques
Progressive, Smooth Acceleration Heel pivots foot from the brake to the accelerator Gently apply pressure to the accelerator pedal to gradually increase speed to minimize backward pitch and maintain vehicle balance How do you know if you are and smoothly gaining speed?

40 Acceleration Techniques (cont)
2. Thrust Acceleration Typically used when passing or merging into higher speed traffic Greater pressure is applied to accelerator pedal to rapidly increase speed without losing tire traction

41 Braking Techniques Smooth braking technique:
Is a trait of a skilled driver Saves wear and tear on the brake system and tires

42 Methods to Reduce Speed
Release the Accelerator Most frequently used method to slow vehicle speed Gradually reduce pedal pressure to avoid abrupt changes in speed

43 Methods to Reduce Speed
2. Controlled Braking - When releasing the accelerator is not enough Check the rear view mirror Release accelerator and apply smooth, steady pressure on the brake pedal For a smooth STOP, gently ease off the brake a few seconds before stopping to reduce the vehicle’s weight shift so the car does not pitch forward then backward during the final phase of stopping

44 Methods to Reduce Speed (cont)
3. Threshold Braking in an Emergency Slows the vehicle as quickly as possible without locking brakes or losing traction Release accelerator while checking traffic behind Exert forceful pressure on brake pedal and you will feel the vehicle weight shift forward If you feel the wheels begin to slide, ease the pressure on brake pedal so the tires can begin rotating again

45 Methods to Reduce Speed (cont.)
4. Trail Braking – Used for Sharp Turns Occurs at the transition point where you slightly reduce pressure on the brake pedal to allow the vehicle to begin to regain speed before applying the accelerator

46 Trail Braking 1. Use controlled braking prior to reaching the curve
2. Begin easing off brake, and trail brake with very light pressure until halfway through the turn, 3. Accelerate out of the turn

47 Anti-Lock Braking System (ABS)
ABS allows maximum stopping force without locking up the brakes (skidding) If standard brakes are applied too hard, the wheels "lock" or skid, and you lose steering control.

48 Anti-Lock Braking System (cont)
If steering control is lost, the vehicle skids in a straight line wherever it is going ABS is an anti-lock/anti-skid brake system that allows the driver to steer during hard braking

49 Anti-Lock Braking System (cont.)
The ABS warning will come on when there is a problem with either the ABS brake system, normal brake system, or the brake fluid is low in the master cylinder or the ABS brake system To find out if a vehicle is equipped with ABS, turn on the ignition and check the instrument panel for the ABS indicator light

50 Myths about ABS There are fewer fatal crashes for cars equipped with ABS False, some drivers panic and/or release the brake when it pulses Don’t use ABS brakes on a slippery surface False, ABS shortens stopping distance and improves control on a slippery roads

51 Has there ever been a situation when you or a parent had to use threshold braking?

52 Maintaining Vehicle Balance
Vehicle balance is the distribution of the weight of the vehicle on the tires Optimum balance is reached when the vehicle is not moving or is moving in a straight direction at a constant speed As soon as the vehicle accelerates, brakes, or turns, the balance is changed and the weight transfer changes the size of the tire patches

53 Inertia Inertia wants to keep these parked vehicles at rest
Inertia also wants to keep these moving vehicles moving

54 Inertia (cont.) When driving through this curve, inertia creates the sensation that you are being pulled toward the outside of the curve Why? Because you are traveling in a straight line, and inertia wants to keep you going in a straight line

55 Momentum = Mass x Velocity
Momentum is inertia in motion Momentum is the product of speed and weight As momentum increases so does the potential for damage in a collision

56 With a Partner Where does weight shift when you accelerate?
When you decelerate? What about when you are approaching a right turn? Left turn?

57 Pitch, Roll, and Yaw Pitch, Roll, and Yaw are the three axes running through a vehicle’s center of gravity Yaw Pitch Roll

58 Vehicle’s weight shifts backward or forward
Vehicle Pitch Vehicle’s weight shifts backward or forward Forward Pitch Changing Vehicle Load from Rear to Front Backward Pitch: Changing Vehicle Load from Front to Rear Accelerating Releasing the brake Releasing the accelerator Braking

59 Vehicle Roll Roll: Vehicle’s weight shifts to the tires located on one side of the vehicle Which direction is this driver steering to cause this weight shift? What causes a vehicle roll over?

60 Vehicle Yaw Yaw Fishtailing
No Yaw Yaw Fishtailing Vehicle’s rear tires lose traction and weight shifts to one side while opposite rear wheel moves toward front of vehicle

61 Steering For Balance And Control
Sit at a safe distance from the wheel Use a balanced hand position As speed increases, steering input is reduced for turns and other maneuvers Photo courtesy of ADTSEA

62 Changes in Speed Affects
Balance and Control Pushing or releasing the accelerator pedal is the primary method to adjust the speed of a vehicle Changes in speed causes weight shifts to front or rear tires Increases in speed with steering adjustments causes significant shifts in the vehicle’s weight

63 Vehicle Load Vehicle load capacity includes the combined weight of people, liquids and cargo that the vehicle is designed to safely handle. What can affect vehicle load even if the car is empty? Gas! Your car weighs more on a full tank of gas. A gallon of gas weighs about 6 lbs.

64 Effect of Vehicle Load On Vehicle Balance
What could occur if the driver of this vehicle made a quick steering maneuver? Photo courtesy of AAA Foundation

65 Vehicle Over Load Operating a vehicle above the Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR) compromises safety Frame, suspension, brakes and tires are not designed for weights above the rating the manufacturer has set

66 Standard Vehicle Reference Points
LEFT Reference Point 6 inches from line or median 3 feet from line or median Relates a part of the vehicle to some part of the roadway Know your vehicle placement within a lane at all times Maneuver in confined places

67 Standard Vehicle Reference Points 6 inches from line or curb
RIGHT Reference Point 3 feet from line or curb 6 inches from line or curb Relates a part of the vehicle to some part of the roadway Know your vehicle placement within a lane at all times Maneuver in confined places

68 Standard Vehicle Reference Points Left Side Reference (3-6 Inches)
When you look at the curb, pavement line, or edge of the road, it appears to line up about one foot in from the left edge of the hood

69 Standard Vehicle Reference Points Left-Side Reference Point
Used for: Lane Position 2 Preparing for a left turn Determining position for parking on the left side of a one-way street (3-6 inches from the curb or line)

70 Standard Vehicle Reference Points
Right Side Reference Point Your vehicle is 3-6 inches from the curb, pavement line or edge of the road when the line appears near the center of the hood

71 Standard Vehicle Reference Points
Right Side Reference Points Are Used: To know where the curb or line is located For Lane Position 3 For parking

72 Standard Vehicle Reference Points
To Position Vehicle Three Feet Away When you look at the curb, pavement, or edge of the road, it appears to line up with the middle of the right- half of the hood

73 Standard Vehicle Reference Points
Right Side -- Three Feet Away To position for a right turn or for Lane Position 1

74 Standard Vehicle Reference Points
Front Limitation To position 3-6 inches from the line in front of your bumper, stop when your line of sight runs under the side view mirror to curb in front Reference point Line of sight Reference Point

75 Standard Vehicle Reference Points
Front Limitation You will need to know where the front bumper of your vehicle is when you are: At intersections At a stopped position When parking At a crosswalk STOP LINE

76 Standard Vehicle Reference Points
Front Limitation When you look at the curb line it appears to line up with the side view mirror

77 Standard Vehicle Reference Points
Rear Limitations LEFT When you look back over your left shoulder, the curb or line appears to be in the middle of the left rear window RIGHT When you look back over your right shoulder, the curb or line appears to be near the rear window corner

78 Standard Vehicle Reference Points Rear Limitations – How They are Used
LEFT When backing to know where your rear bumper is RIGHT When backing around a corner, it’s the pivot point for turning, such as backing into a perpendicular parking space

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