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Virginia Driver Education Vision, Vehicle Balance and Laws of Nature Module Three.

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Presentation on theme: "Virginia Driver Education Vision, Vehicle Balance and Laws of Nature Module Three."— Presentation transcript:

1 Virginia Driver Education Vision, Vehicle Balance and Laws of Nature Module Three

2 Discuss and write down all the pre- driving checks that you should perform once you are in your vehicle (assume you are already buckled in). Discuss and write down all the pre- driving checks that you should perform once you are in your vehicle (assume you are already buckled in). Next, discuss and write down all the steps to take as you exit your vehicle. Next, discuss and write down all the steps to take as you exit your vehicle. With a Partner

3 Check/set park brake (P) and place Check/set park brake (P) and place Right foot on brake pedal, heel on floor Right foot on brake pedal, heel on floor Left foot on “dead pedal” for balance Left foot on “dead pedal” for balance Key in ignition, and turn toward start Key in ignition, and turn toward start Check alert, warning lights and gauges Check alert, warning lights and gauges Adjust ventilation, accessories, etc Adjust ventilation, accessories, etc Turn headlights on Turn headlights on Topic 1 - Starting Tasks

4 Find a LEGAL, safe parking place Find a LEGAL, safe parking place Stop and set parking brake Stop and set parking brake Shift gear selector to (P)ark (Shift to Reverse if Manual Transmission) Shift gear selector to (P)ark (Shift to Reverse if Manual Transmission) Close windows Close windows Turn off accessories Turn off accessories Turn ignition switch to “off” Turn ignition switch to “off” Lock ignition switch and remove key Lock ignition switch and remove key Unfasten occupant restraints Unfasten occupant restraints Securing the Vehicle

5 Check traffic flow to rear prior to opening door Check traffic flow to rear prior to opening door Monitor door swing into adjacent lane or when parked next to another vehicle Monitor door swing into adjacent lane or when parked next to another vehicle Exit quickly to avoid conflict with traffic Exit quickly to avoid conflict with traffic Lock doors Lock doors Walk toward rear of the vehicle facing traffic Walk toward rear of the vehicle facing traffic Exiting the Vehicle

6 Drivers base about 90% of all driving decisions on what they see, and 10% on what they hear or feel Drivers must be able to look far enough ahead to make good decisions about speed, lane position, signs, signals, markings, and potential hazardsDrivers must be able to look far enough ahead to make good decisions about speed, lane position, signs, signals, markings, and potential hazards Drivers must be able to see near and far--close enough to read the speedometer, and far enough ahead to see/adjust for hazardsDrivers must be able to see near and far--close enough to read the speedometer, and far enough ahead to see/adjust for hazards Topic 2 - Vision and Driving

7 Anything that can blur your vision when driving.Anything that can blur your vision when driving. Discuss and write down: With a Partner... What can you do to enhance your vision when driving?What can you do to enhance your vision when driving? Where should you be looking when you are driving?

8 Fovea VisionFovea Vision Visual Lead, Targeting, Signs, Signals CentralCentral Referencing, Path of Travel Peripheral VisionPeripheral Vision Motion and Color Changes The Three Visual Fields Effective Use of Visual Fields

9 Located at the center of the central vision area, the fovea is a small part of the retina and is responsible for our highest visual acuity The Fovea Vision Area

10 Referencing Vehicle Position to Roadway Referencing Vehicle Position to Roadway Viewing Path of Travel Viewing Path of Travel Central Vision Area (Inner Fringe) An area 35 to 38 degrees around foveal vision used for: Central Vision

11 Central Vision at Night The human eye’s field of vision is much smaller without the help of natural light The human eye’s field of vision is much smaller without the help of natural light Depth perception, visual acuity, and color recognition are all compromised at night Depth perception, visual acuity, and color recognition are all compromised at night Minimize glare by looking at the bottom right of the road to avoid approaching headlights Minimize glare by looking at the bottom right of the road to avoid approaching headlights Keep it dark in the car Keep it dark in the car Slow down to give yourself longer to react Slow down to give yourself longer to react

12 Increases total field of vision to about and is used to see: Objects to the sideObjects to the side Movement and color changes to the sideMovement and color changes to the side Peripheral Vision Approximately 90 degrees of vision to each side

13 Drivers use peripheral vision to: See color and object movement See color and object movement See signal changes, road signs, warning lights on the dashboard See signal changes, road signs, warning lights on the dashboard Monitor traffic Monitor traffic Stay within the lane Stay within the lane Peripheral Vision and the Driving Task Peripheral Vision and the Driving Task

14 Night Time Peripheral Vision Is reduced dramatically due to lack of light to retina and glareIs reduced dramatically due to lack of light to retina and glare While Foveal and Central Vision are also reduced, they become more critical for searching for problemsWhile Foveal and Central Vision are also reduced, they become more critical for searching for problems

15 With a partner: What would you see using Fovea, Central, and Peripheral Vision?

16 Speed Speed Fatigue Fatigue Drugs Drugs Poor weather Poor weather Darkness Darkness Glare Glare Inattention Inattention Vision is Affected by: Smoke Smoke Age Age Dirty Windshield Dirty Windshield Poor Windshield Wipers Poor Windshield Wipers Poor night vision Poor night vision Night Blindness Night Blindness

17 Need both eyes to judge the distance between two objects Depth perception allows you to: judge gaps in traffic when turning, merging, or passing judge gaps in traffic when turning, merging, or passing judge distance when approaching a vehicle or obstruction judge distance when approaching a vehicle or obstruction Depth Perception

18 Stop too far from the stop line or intersection Stop too far from the stop line or intersection Stop too close to vehicles ahead Stop too close to vehicles ahead Move into gaps that are too small Move into gaps that are too small Look for gaps that are larger than needed to perform a maneuver Look for gaps that are larger than needed to perform a maneuver Follow other vehicles at unsafe following distance Follow other vehicles at unsafe following distance Hit parked cars when parking Hit parked cars when parking Have “close calls” when entering traffic, passing, etc. Have “close calls” when entering traffic, passing, etc. Poor Depth Perception

19 As speed increases Central vision decreases and blurs Central vision decreases and blurs Peripheral vision decreases Peripheral vision decreases Changes in steering exaggerate vehicle movement Changes in steering exaggerate vehicle movement MOST IMPORTANTLY: VISION FIELDS NARROW

20 Clean windows—inside and out Clean windows—inside and out Clean lights—be sure they work Clean lights—be sure they work Check defroster and wiper blades Check defroster and wiper blades Remove any objects that interfere with vision Remove any objects that interfere with vision Adjust mirrors properly Adjust mirrors properly Keep sunglasses, flashlight, windshield scraper in vehicle Keep sunglasses, flashlight, windshield scraper in vehicle Ways to Improve the Vision Fields

21 Line of Sight Line-of-sight is the distance you can see in your path of travel

22 Line-of-Sight (LOS) Restrictions Vision is blocked, speed and position adjustments may be needed until LOS is restored

23 Path-of-Travel (POT) The space the vehicle will occupy while traveling to the target area

24 Examples of Path-of-Travel Restrictions Space is not available for the vehicle Narrow lane and no shoulder Vehicle stopped or blocking intersection

25 A “Target” is an object or place far ahead in the center of your path of travel Identify the target in this driver’s path of travel “Target” Far Ahead in the Path of Travel

26 The Target area is the area drivers must scan to the left and right of the target Target AREA Provides the BIG Picture Target Area

27 The driver cannot see anything on the ground in the area outlined above—cars are used to show the size of this area The Pavement Around Your Vehicle You Cannot See From the Driver’s Seat

28 Determining Driver Blind Areas To do this: To do this: Have someone stand outside of the car and continue to back up until you can see their feet. Have someone stand outside of the car and continue to back up until you can see their feet. You will be surprised at how far they have to go! You will be surprised at how far they have to go! Marker (foot or cone)

29 Select the lane position that gives you the best line of sight and safest path of travel Select the lane position that gives you the best line of sight and safest path of travel Lane positions are based upon an average lane size of 12-feet wide, and a vehicle 6-feet wide Lane positions are based upon an average lane size of 12-feet wide, and a vehicle 6-feet wide Using Lane Position to Maximize LOS

30 2-3 Feet Lane Position 1 Positioned in the center of lane with an equal buffer of space on either side

31 3-6 Inches Lane Position 2 Allows for 6 feet of space to the right of the vehicle. Used to prepare for a left turn or when avoiding a problem to the right of the vehicle.

32 3-6 Inches Lane Position 3 Allows for 6 feet of space to the left of the vehicle. Used to prepare for a right turn or when avoiding a problem to the left of the vehicle.

33 Lane positions 4 and 5 – straddling the line to avoid a problem within a lane 5 4 Lane Positions 4 and 5 Lane Positions 4 and 5

34 Topic 3 - Basic Maneuvers -- Steering Holding the upper half of the wheel can result in excessive steering, air bag injuries, and upper body fatigue Hands located on lower half of the wheel offers: Relaxed, balanced control Relaxed, balanced control Reduces unwanted steering wheel movement Reduces unwanted steering wheel movement Improves stability by lowering the body’s center of gravity Improves stability by lowering the body’s center of gravity

35 Hand-to-Hand Steering/Push-Pull Right Turn Left Hand Pushes Up from 8 to 11 Right Turn Right Hand Pulls Down from 1 to 4 Hand-to-Hand/Push-Pull Steering

36 Used at Speeds below 15 mph Left Turn/left hand Left hand pulls down, then reaches up to about theo’clock position and continues to pull down to the left Left Turn/right hand Right Hand pushes up to about the 11 o’clock position Used for slow, tight turns - Arms cross on the top 1/3 of the wheel until desired path of travel is reached Hand-Over-Hand Steering

37 One-Hand Steering Is used when: Backing straight--hand holds top of wheel. Backing straight--hand holds top of wheel. Backing a trailer--hand holds bottom of wheel. Backing a trailer--hand holds bottom of wheel. Backing Position

38 Covering the Accelerator Used for a smooth transition from braking to accelerating Used for a smooth transition from braking to accelerating Allows the vehicle to coast which may speed up or slow down the vehicle Allows the vehicle to coast which may speed up or slow down the vehicle Permits the driver to be prepared for any needed acceleration Permits the driver to be prepared for any needed acceleration

39 1.Progressive, Smooth Acceleration Heel pivots foot from the brake to the accelerator Heel pivots foot from the brake to the accelerator Gently apply pressure to the accelerator pedal to gradually increase speed to minimize backward pitch and maintain vehicle balance Gently apply pressure to the accelerator pedal to gradually increase speed to minimize backward pitch and maintain vehicle balance Acceleration Techniques

40 2. Thrust Acceleration Typically used when passing or merging into higher speed traffic Typically used when passing or merging into higher speed traffic Greater pressure is applied to accelerator pedal to rapidly increase speed without losing tire traction Greater pressure is applied to accelerator pedal to rapidly increase speed without losing tire traction Acceleration Techniques (cont)

41 Smooth braking technique: Is a trait of a skilled driver Is a trait of a skilled driver Saves wear and tear on the brake system and tires Saves wear and tear on the brake system and tires Braking Techniques

42 Release the Accelerator Most frequently used method to slow vehicle speed Most frequently used method to slow vehicle speed Gradually reduce pedal pressure to avoid abrupt changes in speed Gradually reduce pedal pressure to avoid abrupt changes in speed Methods to Reduce Speed

43 2.Controlled Braking - When releasing the accelerator is not enough Check the rear view mirrorCheck the rear view mirror Release accelerator and apply smooth, steady pressure on the brake pedalRelease accelerator and apply smooth, steady pressure on the brake pedal For a smooth STOP, gently ease off the brake a few seconds before stopping to reduce the vehicle’s weight shift so the car does not pitch forward then backward during the final phase of stoppingFor a smooth STOP, gently ease off the brake a few seconds before stopping to reduce the vehicle’s weight shift so the car does not pitch forward then backward during the final phase of stopping Methods to Reduce Speed

44 3.Threshold Braking in an Emergency Slows the vehicle as quickly as possible without locking brakes or losing traction Release accelerator while checking traffic behindRelease accelerator while checking traffic behind Exert forceful pressure on brake pedal and you will feel the vehicle weight shift forwardExert forceful pressure on brake pedal and you will feel the vehicle weight shift forward If you feel the wheels begin to slide, ease the pressure on brake pedal so the tires can begin rotating againIf you feel the wheels begin to slide, ease the pressure on brake pedal so the tires can begin rotating again Methods to Reduce Speed (cont)

45 4.Trail Braking – Used for Sharp Turns Occurs at the transition point where you slightly reduce pressure on the brake pedal to allow the vehicle to begin to regain speed before applying the accelerator Methods to Reduce Speed (cont.)

46 Trail Braking 1. Use controlled braking prior to reaching the curve 3. Accelerate out of the turn 2. Begin easing off brake, and trail brake with very light pressure until halfway through the turn,

47 Anti-Lock Braking System (ABS) ABS allows maximum stopping force without locking up the brakes (skidding) If standard brakes are applied too hard, the wheels "lock" or skid, and you lose steering control.

48 If steering control is lost, the vehicle skids in a straight line wherever it is going ABS is an anti-lock/anti-skid brake system that allows the driver to steer during hard braking Anti-Lock Braking System (cont) Anti-Lock Braking System (cont)

49 The ABS warning will come on when there is a problem with either the ABS brake system, normal brake system, or the brake fluid is low in the master cylinder or the ABS brake system The ABS warning will come on when there is a problem with either the ABS brake system, normal brake system, or the brake fluid is low in the master cylinder or the ABS brake system To find out if a vehicle is equipped with ABS, turn on the ignition and check the instrument panel for the ABS indicator light To find out if a vehicle is equipped with ABS, turn on the ignition and check the instrument panel for the ABS indicator light Anti-Lock Braking System (cont.)

50 There are fewer fatal crashes for cars equipped with ABS There are fewer fatal crashes for cars equipped with ABS False, some drivers panic and/or release the brake when it pulses Don’t use ABS brakes on a slippery surface Don’t use ABS brakes on a slippery surface False, ABS shortens stopping distance and improves control on a slippery roads Myths about ABS

51 Has there ever been a situation when you or a parent had to use threshold braking? Has there ever been a situation when you or a parent had to use threshold braking?

52 Vehicle balance is the distribution of the weight of the vehicle on the tires Vehicle balance is the distribution of the weight of the vehicle on the tires Optimum balance is reached when the vehicle is not moving or is moving in a straight direction at a constant speed Optimum balance is reached when the vehicle is not moving or is moving in a straight direction at a constant speed As soon as the vehicle accelerates, brakes, or turns, the balance is changed and the weight transfer changes the size of the tire patches As soon as the vehicle accelerates, brakes, or turns, the balance is changed and the weight transfer changes the size of the tire patches Maintaining Vehicle Balance

53 Inertia Inertia wants to keep these parked vehicles at rest Inertia wants to keep these parked vehicles at rest Inertia also wants to keep these moving vehicles moving Inertia also wants to keep these moving vehicles moving

54 When driving through this curve, inertia creates the sensation that you are being pulled toward the outside of the curve Why? Inertia (cont.) Because you are traveling in a straight line, and inertia wants to keep you going in a straight line

55 Momentum = Mass x Velocity Momentum is inertia in motionMomentum is inertia in motion Momentum is the product of speed and weightMomentum is the product of speed and weight As momentum increases so does the potential for damage in a collision

56 With a Partner Where does weight shift when you accelerate?Where does weight shift when you accelerate? When you decelerate?When you decelerate? What about when you are approaching a right turn? Left turn? What about when you are approaching a right turn? Left turn?

57 Pitch, Roll, and Yaw Pitch, Roll, and Yaw are the three axes running through a vehicle’s center of gravity Pitch Yaw Roll

58 Vehicle’s weight shifts backward or forward Vehicle’s weight shifts backward or forward Forward Pitch Changing Vehicle Load from Rear to Front Releasing the accelerator Braking AcceleratingAccelerating Releasing the brakeReleasing the brake Backward Pitch: Changing Vehicle Load from Front to Rear Vehicle Pitch

59 Roll: Vehicle’s weight shifts to the tires located on one side of the vehicle Vehicle Roll Which direction is this driver steering to cause this weight shift? What causes a vehicle roll over?

60 Fishtailing Vehicle’s rear tires lose traction and weight shifts to one side while opposite rear wheel moves toward front of vehicle Vehicle Yaw Yaw Yaw No Yaw

61 Steering For Balance And Control Sit at a safe distance from the wheel Sit at a safe distance from the wheel Use a balanced hand position Use a balanced hand position As speed increases, steering input is reduced for turns and other maneuvers As speed increases, steering input is reduced for turns and other maneuvers Photo courtesy of ADTSEA

62 Changes in Speed Affects Balance and Control Pushing or releasing the accelerator pedal is the primary method to adjust the speed of a vehicle Pushing or releasing the accelerator pedal is the primary method to adjust the speed of a vehicle Changes in speed causes weight shifts to front or rear tires Changes in speed causes weight shifts to front or rear tires Increases in speed with steering adjustments causes significant shifts in the vehicle’s weight Increases in speed with steering adjustments causes significant shifts in the vehicle’s weight

63 Vehicle Load Vehicle Load Vehicle load capacity includes the combined weight of people, liquids and cargo that the vehicle is designed to safely handle. What can affect vehicle load even if the car is empty? Gas! Your car weighs more on a full tank of gas. A gallon of gas weighs about 6 lbs.

64 Effect of Vehicle Load On Vehicle Balance What could occur if the driver of this vehicle made a quick steering maneuver? Photo courtesy of AAA Foundation

65 Vehicle Over Load Operating a vehicle above the Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR) compromises safety Operating a vehicle above the Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR) compromises safety Frame, suspension, brakes and tires are not designed for weights above the rating the manufacturer has set Frame, suspension, brakes and tires are not designed for weights above the rating the manufacturer has set

66 Standard Vehicle Reference Points LEFT Reference Point 6 inches from line or median 3 feet from line or median Relates a part of the vehicle to some part of the roadwayRelates a part of the vehicle to some part of the roadway Know your vehicle placement within a lane at all timesKnow your vehicle placement within a lane at all times Maneuver in confined placesManeuver in confined places

67 Relates a part of the vehicle to some part of the roadwayRelates a part of the vehicle to some part of the roadway Know your vehicle placement within a lane at all timesKnow your vehicle placement within a lane at all times Maneuver in confined placesManeuver in confined places RIGHT Reference Point 6 inches from line or curb 3 feet from line or curb Standard Vehicle Reference Points

68 Left Side Reference (3-6 Inches) When you look at the curb, pavement line, or edge of the road, it appears to line up about one foot in from the left edge of the hood Standard Vehicle Reference Points

69 Used for: Lane Position 2Lane Position 2 Preparing for a left turnPreparing for a left turn Determining position for parking on the left side of a one-way street (3-6 inches from the curb or line)Determining position for parking on the left side of a one-way street (3-6 inches from the curb or line) Standard Vehicle Reference Points Left-Side Reference Point

70 Your vehicle is 3-6 inches from the curb, pavement line or edge of the road when the line appears near the center of the hood Standard Vehicle Reference Points Right Side Reference Point

71 Are Used: To know where the curb or line is locatedTo know where the curb or line is located For Lane Position 3For Lane Position 3 For parkingFor parking Standard Vehicle Reference Points Right Side Reference Points

72 To Position Vehicle Three Feet Away When you look at the curb, pavement, or edge of the road, it appears to line up with the middle of the right- half of the hood Standard Vehicle Reference Points

73 To position for a right turn or forTo position for a right turn or for Lane Position 1Lane Position 1 Right Side -- Three Feet Away Standard Vehicle Reference Points

74 To position 3-6 inches from the line in front of your bumper, stop when your line of sight runs under the side view mirror to curb in front Reference point Line of sight Reference Point Front Limitation Standard Vehicle Reference Points

75 At intersectionsAt intersections At a stopped positionAt a stopped position When parkingWhen parking At a crosswalkAt a crosswalk You will need to know where the front bumper of your vehicle is when you are: STOP LINE Standard Vehicle Reference Points Front Limitation

76 When you look at the curb line it appears to line up with the side view mirror Standard Vehicle Reference Points

77 Rear Limitations LEFT When you look back over your left shoulder, the curb or line appears to be in the middle of the left rear window RIGHT When you look back over your right shoulder, the curb or line appears to be near the rear window corner Standard Vehicle Reference Points

78 Rear Limitations – How They are Used LEFT When backing to know where your rear bumper is RIGHT When backing around a corner, it’s the pivot point for turning, such as backing into a perpendicular parking space Standard Vehicle Reference Points


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