2Contents A General Introduction to the Meridians and Collaterals A general introduction to the twelve regularmeridiansBasic functions, circulation routes and function featuresof eight extra meridiansContents
3Meridians and collaterals Meridians and collaterals or “Jing Luo” in Chinese, are pathways that transport qi and blood, and connect the internal zang-fu organs with the surface and other part of the body.
4Jing, meridians, means “go through” or “a path”. They are strong and trunkbranchesJing, meridians, means “go through” or “a path”. They are strong andlarge. They run longitudinally and interiorly within the body.Luo, that is collaterals, means “something that connects” or “a net”. They are thebranches of the meridians, thin and small. They run transversely and superficially, andcrisscross and net the whole body.
8Meridian system Fifteen connecting collaterals Superficial collaterals Twelve regular meridiansMeridiansEight extra meridiansMeridian systemTwelve divergent meridiansFifteen connecting collateralsSuperficial collateralsTertiary collateralsCollaterals
9Physiological functions of meridians Communicating the exterior with the interior, connecting with visceraCirculating qi and blood and coordinating yin and yangResisting evil qi and manifesting symptoms and signs ofdiseasesTransmitting sensation and regulating the deficiency and excess
10Twelve regular meridians The nomenclature of the twelve regular meridians is based on three factors, which are hand or foot, yin or yang, and zang or fu organs.e.g. Lung meridian of hand-taiyinLarge intestine meridian of hand-yangmingGallbladder meridian of foot-shaoyang
11Flowing orders of Twelve Regular Meridians Three yin meridians of handLung meridian of hand taiyinPericardium meridian of hand jueyiHeart meridian of hand shaoyinChest orAbdomenHandThree yin meridians of footSpleen meridian of foot taiyinLiver meridian of foot jueyiKidney meridian of foot shaoyinThree yang meridians of handLarege intestine meridian of hand yangmingSanjiao meridian of hand shaoyangSmall intestine meridian of hand taiyangFootHeadThree yang meridians of footStomach meridian of foot yangmingGallbladder meridian of foot shaoyangBladder meridian of foot taiyang
12Head three yang meridian three yin meridian Chest Hand of hand Abdomen of footof foot Foot
13Directions of twelve regular meridians Three yin meridians of hand run from chest to handThree yang meridians of hand run from hand to headThree yang meridians of foot run from head to footThree yin meridians of foot run from foot to abdomen and chest.If we extend our arms overhead, the yin meridians run upward while yang ones run downward
14Distribution of the twelve regular meridians The Twelve Regular Meridians have lateral and symmetrical distribution on the head, face, trunk and limbs.The six yin meridians are distributed on the medial side of the limbs and on the chest and abdomen.The six yang meridians are distributed on the lateral side of the limbs and on the head, face and trunk.
15Chest Tip of index finger Beside the nose Tip of great toe External canthusBeside the noseChestTip of great toeTip of ring fingerIn the chestIn the chestTip of small toeTip of small fingerInner canthus
16ConnectionsYin meridians and yang meridians connect in the hand or the foot.Two yang meridians with the same name connect in the head or facial region.Hand yin meridians and foot yin meridians connect in the chest.
17Exterior-interior relationship Yin meridians, which are considered relatively inner, belong to zang organs and interact with fu organs.Yang meridians, which run relatively superficially, belong to fu organs and connect to zang organs.The heart meridian belongs to the heart and connect to the small intestineThe small intestine meridian belongs to the small intestine and interact with the heart.i.e.
30The Eight Extra Meridians The Eight Extra Meridians are the meridians whose courses are different from the twelve regular meridians, eight in all, namely Governor Vessel, Conception Vessel, Thoroughfare Vessel, Belt Vessel, Yin Link Vessel, Yang Link Vessel, Yin Heel Vessel and Yang Heel Vessel.
31Differences compared with twelve regular meridians They do not belong to any zang-fu organs directly;They have no exterior-interior relationship amongst themselvesThey travel in an extraordinary way compared to the twelve regular meridiansApart from GV and CV which have their own points, the other meridians share the points with the twelve regular meridians.
32Functions of the Eight Extra Meridians They distributed longitudinally and horizontally among the twelve regular meridians, working not only as strengthening the association between the twelve regular meridians, but also as dominating and controlling qi and blood, as well as balancing yin and yang.They regulate the qi and blood of the regular meridians, such as in storage, drainage of the qi and blood.If the twelve regular meridians were likened to the rivers and great rivers, the eight extraordinary meridians would be likened to the lakes and reserviors.
33Physiological functions ： （1）regulates qi and blood of yang meridians and be named as sea of yang meridians ；（2）reflects the function of brain, kidney and spinal cord；（3） governs reproductionGovernor Vessel
34Physiological functions: （1）regulates qi and blood of yin meridians and be named as sea of yin meridians；（2）regulates menstruation and pregnant fetus.Conception Vessel governs uterus and gestationConception Vessel
35Physiological functions: （1）regulates qi and blood of twelve regular meridians；（2） governs reproduction；“the sea of twelve regular meridians”“the sea of five zang organs and six fuorgans”Thoroughfare Vessels
36Physiological functions: restrains the other meridians like a beltBelt Vessel