Presentation on theme: "1. 2 Medical Screening Medical screenings are especially important to people who are overweight or suffer from obesity. Obesity A medical condition in."— Presentation transcript:
2 Medical Screening Medical screenings are especially important to people who are overweight or suffer from obesity. Obesity A medical condition in which a person’s ration of body fat to lean muscle mass is excessively high. Term to Know Obesity is a major health problem in the United States today.
3 Medical Screening Medical screenings are especially important to people who have a known chronic disease such as heart disease or diabetes. Chronic disease A disease that is ongoing. Terms to Know Asthma is a chronic disease that affects a person’s ability to perform physically demanding activities. Chronic disease A disease that is ongoing. Asthma A disease in which the small airways of the lungs become narrowed, making it difficult to breathe.
4 Environmental Conditions and Physical Activity Climate is a potential risk factor in personal health and fitness. As long as you use common sense and follow a few simple rules, most activities can be carried out safely.
5 Environmental Conditions and Physical Activity During physical activity in extreme heat you perspire so heavily that it can affect your fluid balance and you may experience dehydration. Fluid balance The body’s ability to balance the amounts of fluid taken in with the amounts lost through perspiration or excretion Dehydration Body fluid loss. Terms to Know
6 – Drink plenty of water (before, during, after) – If possible drink H2O every 20 minutes – Avoid drinks high in sugar and caffeine
8 Environmental Conditions and Physical Activity Some other heat-related injuries are: Heat Cramps Heat Exhaustion Heatstroke
9 Environmental Conditions and Physical Activity Heat cramps can be minimized by drinking plenty of fluids before and during physical activity. Heat cramps Muscle spasms resulting from the loss of large amount of sale and water through perspiration. Term to Know
11 Environmental Conditions and Physical Activity Heat exhaustion symptoms include: Heat exhaustion An overheating of the body resulting in cold, clammy skin, and symptoms of shock. Term to Know Weakness Headache Rapid pulse Stomach discomfort Dizziness Heavy sweating Drop in body weight
14 Environmental Conditions and Physical Activity Heatstroke symptoms include: Heatstroke A condition in which the body can no longer rid itself of heat through perspiration. Term to Know Very high body temperature Rapid pulse Loss of consciousness
16 Environmental Conditions and Physical Activity You can prevent heat-related injuries by using these strategies. Acclimatization is achieved after five to ten days of light workouts in the heat. Acclimatization The process of allowing your body to adapt slowly to weather conditions. Terms to Know To prevent dehydration, you need to rehydrate by drinking plenty of fluids before, during, and after physical activity. Acclimatization The process of allowing your body to adapt slowly to weather conditions. Rehydrate Restore lost water.
17 Environmental Conditions and Physical Activity Before: Consume between 1½ and 2½ cups of cool water or sports drink 10 to 20 minutes before exercising in the heat. During: Attempt to match fluid loss with fluid intake, approximately 1½ cups to 3¼ cups of water per hour. After: Drink 2 cups of water or sports drink for every pound lost. It may take up to 12 hours to achieve complete fluid replacement after strenuous exercise in the heat. Tips for avoiding heat-related injury include:
18 Environmental Conditions and Physical Activity To avoid heat-related injury, learn to use the heat-stress index. Heat-stress index A scientific measure of the combined effects of heat and humidity on the body. Term to Know
19 Environmental Conditions and Physical Activity When you are physically active or exercise for extended periods of time in cold weather, you are at risk of hypothermia and frostbite. Hypothermia A condition in which your body temperature drops below normal. Frostbite Tissue damage from freezing. Terms to Know
20 HYPOTHERMIA ABNORMALLY LOW BODY TEMPERATURE CAUSED BY COLD The body LOSES heat faster than it can be produced. If body temperature is too low, will affect brain.
21 Environmental Conditions and Physical Activity Avoid spending extended periods outdoors when the wind-chill factor is below -22 degrees. Wind-chill factor The combined influence of wind and temperature on the body. Term to Know
22 Other Outdoor Environmental Conditions Other potential environmental factors that pose a risk are: Air pollution Altitude Unleashed dogs
23 Other Outdoor Environmental Conditions Here are some guidelines to keep in mind: Take time to examine and plan your outdoor routes. Exercise in well-lit areas. Exercise with friends, especially at night. Wear reflective clothing. Avoid isolated trails or paths. Avoid exercising in high-crime neighborhoods. Always let someone know where you are going.
24 Safety Gear and Clothing It is important to choose clothing and safety equipment that are suited to the particular activity or exercise you will be doing.
25 Clothing Choose clothing that is appropriate to the activity. Here are some examples: Aerobic dance Choose material that is not too tight and allows comfortable movement. Rugged activity Durable fabric is best for activities such as rock climbing. Outdoor activity Consider fabrics that are wind and water-resistant if necessary. Proper fit is a major consideration.
26 Clothes For Exercise Hot Weather Light weight Light color (white, gray) Cotton Do Not Wear Black!
27 40% of Body Heat is lost from your Head! WEAR A HAT!
28 Footwear Always choose a nonskid shoe to significantly reduce risk for injury. When shopping for footwear, think about the activities you will be doing. There are many different types of footwear, and many are designed for a particular activity or sport.
29 SOCKS Vital in exercising comfortably Prevents blisters Cold weather, wear two pairs (warmth )
30 Footwear There are two main factors to consider when shopping for shoes: Pronation The normal motion of the foot as you walk or run, from the outside of the heel striking the ground through the normal inward roll of the foot. Terms to Know Pronation The normal motion of the foot as you walk or run, from the outside of the heel striking the ground through the normal inward roll of the foot. Supination The normal outward roll of the foot as it hits the ground. Supination
31 Time to replace my old athletic shoes? Place old shoes on a flat surface look at them from the back. If they lean inward or outward or show signs of excessive wear like badly worn edges of the sole
32 Footwear A roomy toe box will allow proper circulation in your feet during activity. Toe box The part of the shoe that surrounds the toes. Term to Know
33 Think about protection from injuries: Shoes don't have to be very heavy to offer good support. Thin or flimsy shoes like canvas sneakers can worsen some problems such as calf or Achilles tendon pain. A shoe whose heel compresses too easily can overstretch your calf. In addition, soles that bend at the ball of the foot, not under the arch, offer better support. Running Shoes
34 Safety Equipment If you participate in an activity such as bicycling, skateboarding, skiing, snowboarding, or inline skating, you should always wear protective equipment. Statistics show that the likelihood of head injury is reduced 85% when a helmet is worn.
35 Safety Equipment Other safety considerations include: Take extra care around pedestrians and vehicles. Always control your speed. Pay close attention to the pavement for holes and obstructions. If you do fall, prepare your body for the blow by curling up into a ball and rolling as you hit the ground. Replace your helmet if it is damaged.
36 Preventing Fitness Injuries Have you ever experienced soreness after a workout? There are actions you can take to relieve the discomfort and avoid common fitness-related injuries.
37 Biomechanics The laws of biomechanics dictate that when you jog slowly, your foot strikes the ground with a force that is three times your body weight. Biomechanics The study and the application of principles of physics to human motion. Term to Know
38 Biomechanics Start slowly. Follow the recommendations for efficient, gentle walking and jogging. Breathe deeply through your nose and mouth, rather than through your nose only. Relax your fingers, hands, arms, shoulders, neck, and jaw. Bend your arms at the elbows at an angle of about 90 degrees. Swing your arms straight forward and back instead of across your body. These tips will help you walk and jog safely and efficiently from a biomechanical standpoint:
39 Biomechanics Stand upright. Hold your head up, and minimize your head motion. Develop a smooth, even stride that feels natural and comfortable to you. When your foot strikes the ground, it should land on the heel. Try to point your toes straight ahead as your heel strikes the ground. Push off on the ball of your foot. Do not pound noisily as you walk or jog. These tips will help you walk and jog safely and efficiently from a biomechanical standpoint.
40 Biomechanics Avoid slapping your feet and excessive bouncing. Try to walk or jog on soft surface, such as a dirt road, track, or grassy area, as compared to a concrete or asphalt surface. Avoid hilly surfaces, because they can place unusual stress on your muscles and joints. These tips will help you walk and jog safely and efficiently from a biomechanical standpoint.
41 Common Fitness Injuries and Treatment Pay close attention to any injury and seek medical attention if the injury interferes with your ability to perform tasks and activities.
42 Common Fitness Injuries and Treatment Skin injuries Muscle injuries Connective tissue injuries The most common types of fitness injuries are:
44 Common Fitness Injuries and Treatment Connective tissue is the soft material that helps hold the soft material that helps hold bones and joints of the body in place. Tendons Bands of connective tissue that connect muscles to bones. Terms to Know Tendons are one type of connective tissue.
45 Common Fitness Injuries and Treatment A second type of connective tissue is ligaments. Ligaments Bands of tissue that connect bone to bone and limit the movement of joints Terms to Know
46 Common Fitness Injuries and Treatment A third type of connective tissue is cartilage. Cartilage The tissue that surrounds the ends of bones at a joint to prevent the bones from rubbing against each other. Terms to Know
47 Common Fitness Injuries and Treatment Shinsplints Inflammation of a tendon or muscle in the leg. Terms to Know Shinsplints are a type of connective tissue injury that often results from overuse.
48 Common Fitness Injuries and Treatment A strain is a type of connective tissue injury that can result from insufficient warm-up, lack of flexibility, or overuse. Strain A pull or rip in a muscle or tendon. Terms to Know
49 Common Fitness Injuries and Treatment A sprain is a type of connective tissue injury that can result from a sudden twisting force to a joint. Sprain A tear of a ligament. Terms to Know
50 Common Fitness Injuries and Treatment In the event of a strain or sprain, you should immediately use the RICE formula. RICE A first-aid procedure for strains and sprains that become swollen. Terms to Know
51 InjuryTreatment R est the injured area. I ce the area to reduce swelling. C ompress the area by wrapping it in an elastic bandage. E levate, or raise the body part.
52 Preventing Injuries To prevent or safely treat common injuries, follow these guidelines: Pay attention to your body. If you feel unusually sore or fatigued, postpone activity or exercise until you feel better. Include a proper warm-up and cooldown in your personal fitness program. Monitor the frequency, intensity, time, and type (FITT) of your exercise closely. Progress slowly but steadily. If you run or walk along busy streets, always face oncoming traffic. Wear reflective clothing during night physical activities or exercise, such as walking or jogging. Use proper safety equipment for activities with a higher injury risk, such as skateboarding, snowboarding, in-line skating, and cycling. Always seek out proper medical advice when you have an injury.
53 The primary cause of most activity related injuries is overuse.
60 Substance Abuse and Its Effects Take a closer look at the health risks associated with the use of tobacco. Cigarettes contain over 40 poisonous chemicals. Smoking interferes with the normal working of the lungs. Nicotine, found in cigarettes, is addictive, making it difficult for smokers to quit.
61 Substance Abuse and Its Effects Smokeless Tobacco Facts Smokeless tobacco releases 10 times the amount of cancer- causing substances into the bloodstream than cigarettes do. Long-term use of smokeless tobacco can lead to an elevated heart rate and high blood pressure. Smokeless tobacco causes cancer of the mouth, lips, and gums.
62 Substance Abuse and Its Effects Alcohol has short-term effects on the body: slows down the central nervous system, impairing vision, reaction time, and coordination. nausea, vomiting, and dehydration. impairs judgment and causes an increase in risk-taking behavior.
64 Substance Abuse and Its Effects Anabolic steroids are used as a medicine to treat specific chronic diseases; any other use is illegal and dangerous. Anabolic steroids Chemicals similar in structure to the male hormone testosterone. Term to Know
66 Substance Abuse and Its Effects Physical Effects of Anabolic Steroids Lower sperm count Smaller testicles Increased risk of testicle or prostate cancer Larger breasts Infertility (inability to have children) Deeper voice More facial hair Smaller breasts Hair loss or baldness Sleeping problems Rapid weight gain Acne Upset stomach Difficulty urinating Both Males and Females MalesFemales