2Anthropometry What is anthropometry? Anthropometry is the measurement of body parameters to indicate nutritional status.
3Anthropometry Why is anthropometry important? Anthropometry is the easiest way to measure nutritional status.
4Anthropometric measurements HeightWeightMid-upper arm circumference (MUAC)Demi-span or arm spanKnee heightSitting heightSkin fold thicknessHead circumference
5Anthropometric indexCombination of different measurements or combination of a measurement with other dataWeight-for-heightHeight-for-ageWeight-for-ageMUAC-for-heightMUAC-for-ageBMI-for-ageEtc.
6Building blocks of anthropometric indices SexAgeHeight/LengthWeight1234
7Use of building blocksHeightUsing this information we can find out if the child is “stunted” or short for his ageWeightUsing this information we can find out if the child is “wasted” or thin for his heightandandAgeHeight
8Which anthropometric index to use? Depends on target groupDepends on what you want to measureFor children <5 years of age:Nutritional problemIndexChronic malnutrition (stunting)Height-for-ageAcute malnutrition (wasting)Weight-for-heightAny protein-energy malnutrition (underweight)Weight-for-age
9Classification of malnutrition in children Protein-energyMalnutrition(Underweight)Acute(wasting)Chronic(stunting)MarasmusKwashiorkor
10Acute and chronic protein-energy malnutrition What are the characteristics of acute malnutrition?ChronicWhat are the characteristics of chronic malnutrition?
11Acute and chronic protein-energy malnutrition Acute shortage of foodProduces recent rapid weight lossResults in wastingIs reversibleMeasured by weight-for-heightAdults can become wastedIs most important type in emergenciesChronicChronic shortage of nutrients or presence of multiple infectionsOccurs over a long periodResults in stuntingIn kids > 2 years, may be irreversibleMeasured by height-for-ageAdults cannot become stuntedIs very common in stable populations
12Acute and chronic protein-energy malnutrition Both type of malnutrition can have serious consequences.
13Anthropometry in adults Body mass index (BMI)Is ratio of weight and height: Weight (kgs)(Height [m]) 2Single cut-off points for all ages:BMICategory of Nutritional Status< 16.0Severe MalnutritionModerate MalnutritionMild Malnutrition18.5 – 24.9Normal Nutrition Status> 25Overweight
14Why is it important how well we measure? Accurate data is needed to correctly classify nutritional status of individualsNeed correct classification of individuals to measure nutritional status in populationsWe use population assessments to make important program decisions
15Measuring height (children 24 months or older) 1. Measure height for children 24 months and older if they can stand unassisted.2. Measure child without shoes and wearing light clothing.3. Remove hair accessories that interfere with measurement.4. Position child with feet flat and together on the base of the board.5. Heels, back of knees, buttocks, shoulder blades and back of head touch back of board while child is maintaining a normal stance. For some children this is not possible and only the heels and buttocks will touch the board.6 Shoulders level and eyes looking straight ahead.7. Headpiece firmly against top of the child’s head and firmly against the board.8. Read measurement to the nearest 0.1 cm.
23How to measure length1. Measure length for children less than 24 months of age.2. Measure infant without shoes and wearing light underclothing or clean diaper.3. Remove hair accessories that interfere with measurement4. Lay child on his back in the center of the measuring surface.5. Assistant cups the ears to hold the infant’s head so the infant is looking upward and the crown of the head is against the headpiece.6. Bring knees together, extend both legs and bring movable foot piece to rest against heels.7. Read measurement to the nearest 0.1 cm.
35How to use the UNISCALE - display and switch window KgSECASwitch WindowTurns the scale on and makes the scale workin different ways. When the window is covered up for a short time, the scale is switched on or the way in which it works is changed.Display WindowIs where the weightis shown in Kg andone tenth of a Kg
36How to use the UNISCALE - using the switch window The best way to cover the switch windowis to use your foot:Pass one foot close over the top of the switch window from one side to the other.DO NOT step on or touch the window. It is not a push button switch.
37How to use the UNISCALE 188.8 0.0 kg 1. Put the scale on the floor. Choose the flattest, most level surface you have. Do not stand on the scale yet.2. Look at the display window. It should be blank.kg3. Move your foot quickly across the switch. The scale will switch on and you will see:188.84. In 5 seconds, the scale will adjust itself to zero. You are ready to weigh a person.0.0
38How to use the UNISCALE 1 . .1 1 . 58.3 kg 5. Stand on the scale. Stand still. Make sure that feet or clothes do not cover the switch window.You should see:and then:.1and then:6. The 1 will move back and forth from side to side to show you the scale is working. Then you should see the weight in the display , for example:58.3kg
39UNISCALE: weighing adults and children who can stand on their own 1. Turn on the scale.Move your foot acrossswitch window.2. Ask the personto step on the scale.Wait until the displayshows weight.3. Ask the personto get off the scale.Wait until the displayshows 0.0 beforeweighing the nextperson.
40UNISCALE: Weighing children who are held by their mothers Make sure her feet or clothes do not cover the switch window.You will see the mother’sweight in the display, forexample:52.41. Turn on the scale. Move your foot across switch window.2. Ask the motherto step on the scale byherself.She can give her child toyou or another person to hold.
41UNISCALE: Weighing children who are held by their mothers 3. With the mother on the scale pass your foot slowly across the switch window.Then wait a couple seconds.4. Ask the mother to step off the scale.You should see:0.0--.-
42UNISCALE: Weighing children who are held by their mothers 5. Ask the mother to stepback on the scale with herchild.You should see the child’sweight.6. Ask the mother to stepoff the scale.You should see:5.4--.-
43UNISCALE: Weighing children who are held by their mothers 7. Pass your foot across the switch windowto reset the scale before weighing the next mother.You should see:0.0
44SummaryIt is crucial to follow these procedures as closely as possible to get accurate measurements of children, women, and men.