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Methodologies and Regulations in Specimen Collection and Management Module 6: Special Draws.

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Presentation on theme: "Methodologies and Regulations in Specimen Collection and Management Module 6: Special Draws."— Presentation transcript:

1 Methodologies and Regulations in Specimen Collection and Management Module 6: Special Draws

2 Objectives After this presentation you will be able to: Describe the steps in using a winged infusion needle for the collection of blood Discuss the use of a syringe for blood collection Describe dermal or skin punctures Describe the correct procedure for capillary blood collection

3 Today’s Agenda Describe the steps in using a winged infusion needle for the collection of blood Discuss the use of a syringe for blood collection Describe dermal or skin punctures Describe the correct procedure for capillary blood collection

4 Butterfly or Winged Infusion Set Used for small veins on infants and small children Adults with difficult veins Hand or wrist veins Most commonly used needle is a 23g and sometimes a 25g Note: – Specimens can hemolyze – Tubes that are too large can collapse the vein

5 The Butterfly Winged Infusion Procedure Follow the same procedure as for a routine venipuncture When removing the butterfly from the package pull on the tubing to keep from coiling

6 The Butterfly Winged Infusion Procedure If using a hand vein, insert the needle at a degree angle Either a syringe or an evacuated tube holder can be added to the end of the tube

7 Butterfly A flash of blood will appear in the tubing Seat the needle by threading it up the lumen of the vein. This action will prevent the butterfly from twisting If the needle needs to be held in place, use the index finger of your left hand with light pressure on the wing (do not tape wings) Needle Link Tubing Collection Vial Safety Barrel

8 Butterfly Keep the tube and holder in a downward position so that the tube fills from the bottom up Follow order of draw Safety cover the needle Be careful when disposing the needle, sometimes it tends to twist

9 ANY QUESTIONS?

10 Today’s Agenda Describe the steps in using a winged infusion needle for the collection of blood Discuss the use of a syringe for blood collection Describe dermal or skin punctures Describe the correct procedure for capillary blood collection

11 Syringe Draw The syringe is another method of blood collection It is used for fragile veins, elderly patients, and children The phlebotomist can control the amount of pressure by pulling on the plunger slowly

12 Parts of a Syringe Plunger – Used to pull the blood out Barrel – To hold the syringe in place Needle Hub – Needle attaches to Needle – Various sizes Plunger Barrel Needle Hub Needle

13 Syringe Procedure Follow the same procedure as for a routine venipuncture Place needle on the hub of the syringe securely Move the plunger up and down, make sure it moves freely Push the plunger all the way to the down to the hub end where the needle is attached

14 Syringe When blood enters the syringe, pull the plunger slowly Be careful not to pull the plunger out of the syringe Fill syringe to capacity but do not pull out the plunger Immediately transfer the contents of the syringe to the appropriate tubes with a safety transfer device 14

15 Safety Transfer Device Follow Order of Draw Always use a safety blood transfer device when filling tubes from a syringe draw

16 Transferring Blood From a Syringe to a Tube If a safety transfer device is unavailable, use the following method: – Place the tube in a tube holder – Keep your free hand behind your back, DO NOT hold the tube or the tube holder – Slowly pierce the vacuum of the tube with the syringe – Let the blood flow into the tube

17 Knowledge Check What is the purpose of using a butterfly or syringe for blood collection?

18 ANY QUESTIONS? 18

19 Today’s Agenda Describe the steps in using a winged infusion needle for the collection of blood Discuss the use of a syringe for blood collection Describe dermal or skin punctures Describe the correct procedure for capillary blood collection

20 Skin Puncture Venous Arterial Tissue Capillary More closely resembles arterial; especially if area is warmed Reference values for skin are different than venipuncture

21 When to Perform a Skin or Dermal Puncture Adults – No accessible veins Infants – Difficult to perform venipuncture, may damage veins, to remove small amounts – Babies over the age of 1 year Some laboratory tests are designed to be performed by the skin puncture

22 Skin or Dermal Puncture Equipment Lancet Microcontainers – red – purple – green Microhematocrit Tubes – Hematology or Chemistry Testing Warming Devices – Increase the blood flow as much as 7X

23 Site Selection Skin puncture sites should be warm, pink and free of cuts, bruises or rashes. Do not choose a site that is cold, cyanotic or swollen

24 Finger Punctures Finger punctures can be used for adults Should not be performed on infants and children less than one year Recommended site: middle finger of the non- dominant hand (second choice: ring finger) Remember: Band-aids should not be placed on pediatric patients

25 Finger Punctures The puncture should be done perpendicular to the fingerprint on the fleshy pad Never puncture the tip or sides of the finger Never use the pinky or thumb Puncture Site Correct Not Correct

26 Finger Punctures

27 Finger Stick Procedure Wash hands and put on gloves Greet the client Identify the client Clean the site Make sure site is warm – A clients hand can be warmed by washing with warm water or applying a paper towel soaked in warm water

28 Finger Stick Procedure With the palm facing upward, grasp the finger firmly between you thumb and index finger Puncture across the fingerprint Wipe off first drop of blood

29 Finger Stick Procedure Follow order of draw for the skin puncture Label all tubes properly

30 Finger Stick Procedure

31 ANY QUESTIONS?

32 Today’s Agenda Describe the steps in using a winged infusion needle for the collection of blood Discuss the use of a syringe for blood collection Describe dermal or skin punctures Describe the correct procedure for capillary blood collection

33 Heel Stick Site Infant – Recommended heel site for blood collection is the medial or lateral portion of the heel Primary Site Primary Site Secondary Site

34 Cleaning Procedures Clean heel with 70% isopropanol Site should dry completely Remember: Alcohol + RBC’s = Lysed cells Iodine should not be used for skin punctures because it interferes with bilirubin, potassium, phosphorus and uric acid results

35 Heel Stick Procedure Wash your hands and put on gloves Properly identify of the client Select the site, warm area for at least 3 minutes Cleanse the site and let completely dry

36 Heel Stick Procedure Hold the foot with a firm grip, grasp heel with thumb placed below puncture site and index finger placed over the arch Puncture site at a 90 degree angle parallel to the heel Use a quick continuous motion

37 Heel Stick Procedure Wipe away the first drop of blood Ease thumb pressure and apply intermittent pressure. Avoid milking and scraping Follow recommended order of draw When blood collection is complete, clean area, apply pressure. – Never apply band-aid under the age of two Label specimens immediately after the draw; never before

38 Heel Stick Technique Infant heels are appropriate for blood collection until approximately 6 months to one year Never exceed 2.0 mm in puncture depth Never puncture the posterior curvature of the heel or the arch of the foot Never use sites previously punctured, bruised, swollen or red in color Never puncture the heel more than twice for any one collection

39 ANY QUESTIONS?

40 Knowledge Check What is the maximum length of a lancet for performing a heel stick? – Answer: 2.0 mm Why is the first drop of blood wiped away during the collection of the finger stick? – Answer: first drop is contaminated with tissue fluid and will dilute specimen (give false lower results) What is the finger of choice for performing a finger stick? – Answer: Middle finger of either hand

41 Remember: Order of Draw for Skin Puncture Peripheral bloods smear Hematology tests (EDTA) All other additive tubes All plain / serum tubes

42 Successful Blood Collection through Skin Puncture Warming the site increases the flow sevenfold Avoid milking or scraping the site which can cause hemolysis Alternately applying and releasing pressure will promote a good flow

43 Betadine or iodine should not be used to cleanse. It interferes with bilirubin, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, total protein, and glucose results Failure to allow alcohol to dry will cause hemolysis and stinging Successful Blood Collection through Skin Puncture

44 Challenging / Difficult Patients Injection Drug Users Babies / Infants Geriatric patients Obese patients Patients with mastectomies Patients with IVs Patients with broken bones

45 Summary After this presentation, you can now: Describe the steps in using a winged infusion needle for the collection of blood Discuss the use of a syringe for blood collection Describe dermal or skin punctures Describe the correct procedure for capillary blood collection and Order of Draw

46 ANY QUESTIONS? THANK YOU!


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