4 Hydraulic Fracturing 4 Fracturing fluid - The fluid used during a hydraulic fracture treatment of oil, gas, or water wells. The fracturing fluid has two major functions: 1.Open and extend the fracture. 2.Transport the proppant along the fracture length. Proppant - Suspended particles in the fracturing fluid that are used to hold fractures open after a hydraulic fracturing treatment, thus producing a conductive pathway that fluids can easily flow along. Naturally occurring sand grains or artificial ceramic material are common proppants used.
5 Lateral Configuration 2000 - 2002 First 17 Wells Completed as 5-1/2” Mono-Bores Focus was on limited entry Four, 3’ perf clusters placed across drilling breaks and gas shows Typical perf density was 29 holes over 3,000’ of lateral in five groups Early perforating was done with TCP guns Perfs in the toe clusters were increased slightly assuming that the frac would prefer to treat the heel due to higher treating pressures 30-35# X-linked Borate gels pumped at 45 BPM placing 390,000 # of premium 20/40 resin coated proppant ramped up to 6 ppg RA tracers were run in to better understand proppant distribution Tracers indicated some heel treatment, however, frac preference seemed to be towards the toe 9-5/8” 5-1/2”
6 Lateral Configuration 2002 - 2004 5-1/2” Continued to run 5-1/2” casing cemented from the curve to the base of the 9-5/8” surface casing Cementing was through a DV tool above an External Casing Packer 9-5/8”
7 Lateral Configuration 2004 - 2006 4-1/2” Liner 9-5/8” 7” Begin to run 7” intermediate casing cemented from the curve to the base of the 9-5/8” surface casing Cementing was through a DV tool above an External Casing Packer
8 Lateral Configuration 2006-2007 First attempt to use a single water swell packer in open hole to create two separate isolated compartments that could be fraced independently of each other. –Mid-lateral to toe was pre-perforated and perforations were plugged with aluminum inserts that could later be knocked off with a bit prior to fracturing –A composite bridge plug was then set inside the liner at mid-point followed by jet perforating from the mid-point to the heel prior to fracturing second stage –Completion results were more encouraging
9 Sleeping Giant 2008-2009 Progression to 2-3 water swell packers to break lateral in to 3-4 compartments (1,500-3,000’ in length) –Pre-perforating mid-point to toe –Jet perforating mid-point to heel –Using ball sealers and benzoic acid flakes (BAF) for diversion –Later used fiber gel slugs in an attempt to create fluid diversion –Frac fluid systems were similar to pre-2008 jobs