Presentation on theme: "Pipe Dreams and Trading Schemes"— Presentation transcript:
1 Pipe Dreams and Trading Schemes A study of the decorations on tobacco pipes and trading patterns at Cocumscussoc
2 A History of Colonial Pipes Tobacco smoking first became popular in England around the 1570sSpanish were familiar almost 100 years before, with from natives in South American colonies
3 Distribution of PipesThe clay tobacco pipe industry developed in many local areas throughout England and the Netherlands around the early part of the 17th centuryMost pipes were distributed locallyPort towns and cities allowed for overseas trading, bringing clay pipes to the North American colonies.
4 Early pipes have a short stem with a large bore diameter and a small "acorn" shaped, rouletted bowl that angled away from the smoker.Throughout the 17th century, stems became longer, bore sizes smaller and bowl sizes larger.By the early 18th century, pipes developed into a larger straight-sided form with no rouletting around the rim and the bowl perpendicular to the stem.
5 Pipe PopularityClay pipes were extremely inexpensive, resulting in all social and economic classes owning and disposing of themClay pipes were typically broken and discarded within 1-2 years
6 Dating Sites with Pipes Clay tobacco pipes are excellent artifacts for dating colonial sites because they’ve undergone definitive stylistic changes over its history of production.
7 Pipe Material Pipes have been found made of silver, brass, pewter, iron, and leadBut clay was the primary material pipes were made from until the end of the 19th centuryWhite clay: kaolin
8 Pipes at Cocumscussoc Over 800 fragments 131 decorated fragments 42 decorated stem fragments89 decorated bowl or heel fragments
9 Methods Initial sort by unit and levels Sort by pipe bowl fragments and pipe stem fragmentsSort by designed pieces
10 Maker’s Marks Identifying maker’s mark allows: place of origin the date range within which it was madea basic time frame for when the pipe was deposited
11 Two Main Categories of Makers Marks Relief Marks-Form a raised mark on the pipe-Either stamped with a die or incorporated into the pipe mouldIncuse Marks-Form a negative impression on the pipe-Either stamped with a die or applied by a similar device across which the stem was rolled
12 Two Main Categories of Makers Marks Relief Marks-Form a raised mark on the pipe-Either stamped with a die or incorporated into the pipe mouldIncuse Marks-Form a negative impression on the pipe-Either stamped with a die or applied by a similar device across which the stem was rolled
13 Exception to the Rule The Chesapeake pipe bearing the initials DK - The pipemaker used a hand held tool to produce the rouletted initials and other decorative designs
14 Time Ranges Derived from Makers Marks First half of the 17th century: (true for English and Dutch pipes)-predominantly stamped on the heelSecond half of the 17th century:makers marks are still found on the heel, but can also be found on the stems and backs of bowlsEnd of the 17th century to the third quarter of the 18th century:-makers marks are most commonly seen in the form of either a moulded cartouche on the right or left side of the bowl, initials moulded into the sides of the heel/spur, or as an abbreviated mane stamped on the stem.
15 Dutch vs. English PipesDutch pipes in the later 17th century are distinguished from the English pipes not only by their bowl shape and the presence of rouletting around the rim, but also because pipemakers continued to mark their pipes on the heel, often using miniscule marks.
16 “PE” Incuse. Stamped on heel. Mark identified as Philip Edwards of Bristol(1649/ )
17 “WE” Incuse. Mark identified as William Evans, Bristol pipemaker. William Evans I ( ); William Evans II ( ).
18 “LE”Incuse.Mark identified as Bristol pipemaker Llewellin Evans ( ).
19 “RT”Incuse.Mark attributed to Robert Tippett II, Bristol pipemaker ( )
32 Influence of Egyptian Sun The Egyptian sun god motif of a ball upon wings inspired many European artworkFound and evolved upon many sculptures, artwork, and gravestones“T-[W?]” maker unidentified - probably later period
33 Pipe DecorationsPipe decorations are not as readily identifiable to makers and locations as maker’s marksYet Cocumscussoc has a great many decorations, indicating an abundance of trade and wealth
34 Heel Decoration Many heel bases served as places for maker’s marks However, this piece has a flower pattern on the heelOftentimes the Tudor rose was found here
35 RouletteRouletting was one of the most common forms of decoration on both pipe bowls and stemsHas been found on fragments from 1600s-1900sLess common post-18th century however
36 Bowl Roulettes Rouletting was most common along the rims of pipe bowls Mostly incused like maker’s marks, rolled along the rim
41 Stem RoulettesThe Roulette tool: Pipe maker’s usually used a rouletting tool to produce this effect, which was like an engraving wheel or cylinderProduced repetitive decoration.Examples of “mistakes” on stems
48 Fleur de LisThe Fleur-de-lys was originally named the “fleur-de-Louis”, after Louis VII, in 1147 A.D.Evolved to “fleur-de-lys” which means, “flower of the lily”.Incorporated often in coat-of-arms, a frequent pipe decoration, often placed in diamonds
71 "the moment a man takes to a pipe, he becomes a philosopher "the moment a man takes to a pipe, he becomes a philosopher. It's the poor man's friend; it calms the mind, soothes the temper, and makes a man patient under difficulties. It has made more good men, good husbands, kind masters, indulgent fathers, than any other blessed thing on this blessed earth.” - from “Sam Slick, the Clockmaker” by Thomas C. Haliburton ( )