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Crown Princess Vessel Dynamics
Overview Ship dynamics under INS 2 nd officer’s manual inputs Two opposing heeling responses Lag between wheel input and rudder/ship response Motion cues
Primary Motion Yaw Axis –Heading –Turn rate –Turn acceleration Roll Axis –Heel angle –Heel rate –Heel acceleration
Manual Steering Begins
Turning a ship Wheel command to rudder
Ship’s Response to Rudder
Direct Rudder Heeling Moment
Response Lag Direct rudder effect –Immediate heel response to rudder Sideslip effect –Ship must first yaw in response to rudder –Takes longer –Much stronger
42 sec Manual Steering
Motion Cues Positive correlation with: –Heel angular acceleration –Heel rate
Summary The 2 nd officer’s commanded rudder changes faster than the rudder could respond –During a 30 deg starboard rudder command the rudder actually port
Summary (cont.) Two effects of rudder on heel –Short term direct response in direction of rudder input –Longer term more powerful sideslip effect in opposite direction
Summary (cont.) Rudder commands modulated heel rate (while turn rate continued to increase) –Port rudder initially slowed starboard heel rate –But at longer term expense of increased starboard sideslip Starboard sideslip overwhelmed direct rudder effect producing starboard heel
Summary (cont.) Opposing long term and short term effects complicate the 2 nd officer’s efforts to control the heel
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