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TEN STEPS to ADVANCED READING SECOND EDITION Use the tab key, space bar, arrow keys, or page up/down to move through the slides. [Go to “Slide Show” pulldown.

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1 TEN STEPS to ADVANCED READING SECOND EDITION Use the tab key, space bar, arrow keys, or page up/down to move through the slides. [Go to “Slide Show” pulldown menu and click on “Play from Start.”] This presentation should be viewed in “Slide Show” view to display properly. These slides are optimized for PowerPoint versions 12 (2007/2008) and 14 (2010/2011). If viewed in earlier versions of PowerPoint, some slides may not display properly.

2 TEN STEPS to ADVANCED READING SECOND EDITION John Langan © 2013 Townsend Press

3 IMPLIED MAIN IDEAS Chapter 3

4 CHAPTER 3 Implied Main Ideas In Chapters 1 and 2, you learned the two basic parts of anything you read: a main idea and the supporting details that explain and develop that idea. As you have seen, the main idea may be clearly stated in one sentence of a selection. However, sometimes the main idea is implied—only suggested by the supporting details and not clearly stated in one sentence. The reader must figure out such an implied main idea by considering the supporting details.

5 CHAPTER 3 Implied Main Ideas What does this cartoon imply about the newly married couple whose car has broken down?

6 CHAPTER 3 Implied Main Ideas The details tell you the implied point. The newlyweds’ car has broken down. Since they are hitchhiking in opposite directions, the implied point is that their marriage has broken down as well.

7 CHAPTER 3 Implied Main Ideas Implied Main Ideas Sometimes a selection lacks a sentence that directly states the main idea. In such cases, the author has simply decided to let the details of the selection suggest the main idea. You must figure out what that implied idea is by deciding upon the point all the details support.

8 CHAPTER 3 Implied Main Ideas Implied Main Ideas To decide on the main idea, we must ask the same three questions we’ve already used to find main ideas: l “Who or what is this paragraph about?” That will be the topic. l And when we think we know the main point, we can test it by asking, “Does all or most of the material in the paragraph support this idea?” l “What is the main point the author is trying to make about that topic?”

9 CHAPTER 3 Implied Main Ideas Implied Main Ideas Read this selection, asking yourself, “Who or what is the paragraph about?” Researchers who study the “science” of shopping note that men always move faster than women through a store’s aisle. Men spend less time looking, too. They usually don’t like asking where things are, or any other questions. When a man takes clothing into a dressing room, the only thing that stops him from buying it is if it doesn’t fit. Women, on the other hand, try things on as only part of the consideration process, and garments that fit just fine may still be rejected on other grounds. Here’s another contrast: 86 percent of women look at price tags when they shop. Only 72 percent of men do. For a man, ignoring the price tag is almost a measure of his masculinity. As a result, men are far more easily encouraged to buy more expensive versions of the same product than are women shoppers. They are also far more suggestible than women—men seem so anxious to get out of the store that they’ll say yes to almost anything.

10 CHAPTER 3 Implied Main Ideas Implied Main Ideas All of the details are about men and women shoppers, so that must be the topic. Read this selection, asking yourself, “Who or what is the paragraph about?”

11 CHAPTER 3 Implied Main Ideas Implied Main Ideas Researchers who study the “science” of shopping note that men always move faster than women through a store’s aisle. Men spend less time looking, too. They usually don’t like asking where things are, or any other questions. When a man takes clothing into a dressing room, the only thing that stops him from buying it is if it doesn’t fit. Women, on the other hand, try things on as only part of the consideration process, and garments that fit just fine may still be rejected on other grounds. Here’s another contrast: 86 percent of women look at price tags when they shop. Only 72 percent of men do. For a man, ignoring the price tag is almost a measure of his masculinity. As a result, men are far more easily encouraged to buy more expensive versions of the same product than are women shoppers. They are also far more suggestible than women—men seem so anxious to get out of the store that they’ll say yes to almost anything. Which statement expresses the general point that the author is trying to make about the topic? Now ask yourself, “What is the main point the author is trying to make about men and women shoppers?” Men always move faster than women when shopping. Men and women behave differently when shopping. A. B. C. Women look at price tags more than men. Men make more expensive choices when shopping. D.

12 CHAPTER 3 Implied Main Ideas Implied Main Ideas Researchers who study the “science” of shopping note that men always move faster than women through a store’s aisle. Men spend less time looking, too. They usually don’t like asking where things are, or any other questions. When a man takes clothing into a dressing room, the only thing that stops him from buying it is if it doesn’t fit. Women, on the other hand, try things on as only part of the consideration process, and garments that fit just fine may still be rejected on other grounds. Here’s another contrast: 86 percent of women look at price tags when they shop. Only 72 percent of men do. For a man, ignoring the price tag is almost a measure of his masculinity. As a result, men are far more easily encouraged to buy more expensive versions of the same product than are women shoppers. They are also far more suggestible than women—men seem so anxious to get out of the store that they’ll say yes to almost anything. The details reveal the author’s general point to be answer C. Men always move faster than women when shopping. A. B. Women look at price tags more than men. Men make more expensive choices when shopping. D. Men and women behave differently when shopping. C. Men and women behave differently when shopping. C. 3

13 CHAPTER 3 Implied Main Ideas Implied Main Ideas Researchers who study the “science” of shopping note that men always move faster than women through a store’s aisle. Men spend less time looking, too. They usually don’t like asking where things are, or any other questions. When a man takes clothing into a dressing room, the only thing that stops him from buying it is if it doesn’t fit. Women, on the other hand, try things on as only part of the consideration process, and garments that fit just fine may still be rejected on other grounds. Here’s another contrast: 86 percent of women look at price tags when they shop. Only 72 percent of men do. For a man, ignoring the price tag is almost a measure of his masculinity. As a result, men are far more easily encouraged to buy more expensive versions of the same product than are women shoppers. They are also far more suggestible than women—men seem so anxious to get out of the store that they’ll say yes to almost anything. All the other statements are supporting details for this main idea—each tells of a way in which men and women shoppers behave differently. Men always move faster than women when shopping. Men and women behave differently when shopping. A. B. C. Women look at price tags more than men. Men make more expensive choices when shopping. D. 3 A B D 7 7 7

14 CHAPTER 3 Implied Main Ideas Implied Main Ideas Researchers who study the “science” of shopping note that men always move faster than women through a store’s aisle. Men spend less time looking, too. They usually don’t like asking where things are, or any other questions. When a man takes clothing into a dressing room, the only thing that stops him from buying it is if it doesn’t fit. Women, on the other hand, try things on as only part of the consideration process, and garments that fit just fine may still be rejected on other grounds. Here’s another contrast: 86 percent of women look at price tags when they shop. Only 72 percent of men do. For a man, ignoring the price tag is almost a measure of his masculinity. As a result, men are far more easily encouraged to buy more expensive versions of the same product than are women shoppers. They are also far more suggestible than women—men seem so anxious to get out of the store that they’ll say yes to almost anything. Although the main idea is not directly stated, it is clearly implied by all the material in the paragraph. Men and women behave differently when shopping. Main idea:

15 CHAPTER 3 Implied Main Ideas Implied Main Ideas Figuring Out Implied Main Ideas in Paragraphs Remember, to find implied main ideas, it often helps to decide on the topic first. Do so by asking yourself, “Who or what is the selection about?” After you find the topic, then ask yourself, “What is the author’s main point about the topic?”

16 CHAPTER 3 Implied Main Ideas Implied Main Ideas / Figuring Out Implied Main Ideas in Paragraphs You’re in your car headed home from school, but traffic is barely moving and, according to the radio report, getting worse by the minute. Suddenly, another motorist nearly removes your fender trying to cut into your lane. Your pulse accelerates as you shout insults at the driver, who cannot even hear you. Your stomach tenses as you contemplate the term paper that you have to work on tonight. If you don’t finish the paper soon, you won’t have time to study for your math test, not to mention your biology quiz. Then you remember that you promised the person you’re dating that the two of you would get together tonight, but there’s no way that can happen; another fight looms on the horizon. Your classmate asks your opinion of the tuition increase the college announced yesterday, which you’ve been trying not to think about. You’re already in debt, and your parents are bugging you about changing schools, but you don’t want to leave your friends. Your heartbeat quickens as you contemplate the debate you’ll have to wage with your parents. You feel wired with tension at all this stress in your life. What is the topic of this paragraph? Stress is traffic situations Challenges in schoolwork A. B. C. Dealing with personal relationships Stress D.

17 CHAPTER 3 Implied Main Ideas Implied Main Ideas / Figuring Out Implied Main Ideas in Paragraphs You’re in your car headed home from school, but traffic is barely moving and, according to the radio report, getting worse by the minute. Suddenly, another motorist nearly removes your fender trying to cut into your lane. Your pulse accelerates as you shout insults at the driver, who cannot even hear you. Your stomach tenses as you contemplate the term paper that you have to work on tonight. If you don’t finish the paper soon, you won’t have time to study for your math test, not to mention your biology quiz. Then you remember that you promised the person you’re dating that the two of you would get together tonight, but there’s no way that can happen; another fight looms on the horizon. Your classmate asks your opinion of the tuition increase the college announced yesterday, which you’ve been trying not to think about. You’re already in debt, and your parents are bugging you about changing schools, but you don’t want to leave your friends. Your heartbeat quickens as you contemplate the debate you’ll have to wage with your parents. You feel wired with tension at all this stress in your life. Stress is traffic situations Challenges in schoolwork A. B. C. Dealing with personal relationships Stress D. 3

18 CHAPTER 3 Implied Main Ideas Implied Main Ideas / Figuring Out Implied Main Ideas in Paragraphs You’re in your car headed home from school, but traffic is barely moving and, according to the radio report, getting worse by the minute. Suddenly, another motorist nearly removes your fender trying to cut into your lane. Your pulse accelerates as you shout insults at the driver, who cannot even hear you. Your stomach tenses as you contemplate the term paper that you have to work on tonight. If you don’t finish the paper soon, you won’t have time to study for your math test, not to mention your biology quiz. Then you remember that you promised the person you’re dating that the two of you would get together tonight, but there’s no way that can happen; another fight looms on the horizon. Your classmate asks your opinion of the tuition increase the college announced yesterday, which you’ve been trying not to think about. You’re already in debt, and your parents are bugging you about changing schools, but you don’t want to leave your friends. Your heartbeat quickens as you contemplate the debate you’ll have to wage with your parents. You feel wired with tension at all this stress in your life. The passage describes several physical signs of stress. Stress is traffic situations Challenges in schoolwork A. B. C. Dealing with personal relationships Stress D. 3

19 CHAPTER 3 Implied Main Ideas Implied Main Ideas / Figuring Out Implied Main Ideas in Paragraphs You’re in your car headed home from school, but traffic is barely moving and, according to the radio report, getting worse by the minute. Suddenly, another motorist nearly removes your fender trying to cut into your lane. Your pulse accelerates as you shout insults at the driver, who cannot even hear you. Your stomach tenses as you contemplate the term paper that you have to work on tonight. If you don’t finish the paper soon, you won’t have time to study for your math test, not to mention your biology quiz. Then you remember that you promised the person you’re dating that the two of you would get together tonight, but there’s no way that can happen; another fight looms on the horizon. Your classmate asks your opinion of the tuition increase the college announced yesterday, which you’ve been trying not to think about. You’re already in debt, and your parents are bugging you about changing schools, but you don’t want to leave your friends. Your heartbeat quickens as you contemplate the debate you’ll have to wage with your parents. You feel wired with tension at all this stress in your life. The passage describes several physical signs of stress. It also indirectly suggests the topic by describing several stressful situations. stress in your life Stress is traffic situations Challenges in schoolwork A. B. C. Dealing with personal relationships Stress D. 3

20 CHAPTER 3 Implied Main Ideas Implied Main Ideas / Figuring Out Implied Main Ideas in Paragraphs You’re in your car headed home from school, but traffic is barely moving and, according to the radio report, getting worse by the minute. Suddenly, another motorist nearly removes your fender trying to cut into your lane. Your pulse accelerates as you shout insults at the driver, who cannot even hear you. Your stomach tenses as you contemplate the term paper that you have to work on tonight. If you don’t finish the paper soon, you won’t have time to study for your math test, not to mention your biology quiz. Then you remember that you promised the person you’re dating that the two of you would get together tonight, but there’s no way that can happen; another fight looms on the horizon. Your classmate asks your opinion of the tuition increase the college announced yesterday, which you’ve been trying not to think about. You’re already in debt, and your parents are bugging you about changing schools, but you don’t want to leave your friends. Your heartbeat quickens as you contemplate the debate you’ll have to wage with your parents. You feel wired with tension at all this stress in your life. Which statement best expresses the unstated main idea of the paragraph? To deal with stress, people must work to simplify their lives. Many different circumstances can create stress in people’s lives. A. B. C. Traffic situations and college debt are major causes of tension in life. The demands of college study can interfere with personal relationships. D.

21 CHAPTER 3 Implied Main Ideas Implied Main Ideas / Figuring Out Implied Main Ideas in Paragraphs You’re in your car headed home from school, but traffic is barely moving and, according to the radio report, getting worse by the minute. Suddenly, another motorist nearly removes your fender trying to cut into your lane. Your pulse accelerates as you shout insults at the driver, who cannot even hear you. Your stomach tenses as you contemplate the term paper that you have to work on tonight. If you don’t finish the paper soon, you won’t have time to study for your math test, not to mention your biology quiz. Then you remember that you promised the person you’re dating that the two of you would get together tonight, but there’s no way that can happen; another fight looms on the horizon. Your classmate asks your opinion of the tuition increase the college announced yesterday, which you’ve been trying not to think about. You’re already in debt, and your parents are bugging you about changing schools, but you don’t want to leave your friends. Your heartbeat quickens as you contemplate the debate you’ll have to wage with your parents. You feel wired with tension at all this stress in your life. Many different circumstances can create stress in people’s lives. C. 3 The implied main idea is statement C, that many different circumstances—in this case, traffic situations, schoolwork, personal relationships, and debt—can create stress in people’s lives.

22 CHAPTER 3 Implied Main Ideas Implied Main Ideas / Figuring Out Implied Main Ideas in Paragraphs You’re in your car headed home from school, but traffic is barely moving and, according to the radio report, getting worse by the minute. Suddenly, another motorist nearly removes your fender trying to cut into your lane. Your pulse accelerates as you shout insults at the driver, who cannot even hear you. Your stomach tenses as you contemplate the term paper that you have to work on tonight. If you don’t finish the paper soon, you won’t have time to study for your math test, not to mention your biology quiz. Then you remember that you promised the person you’re dating that the two of you would get together tonight, but there’s no way that can happen; another fight looms on the horizon. Your classmate asks your opinion of the tuition increase the college announced yesterday, which you’ve been trying not to think about. You’re already in debt, and your parents are bugging you about changing schools, but you don’t want to leave your friends. Your heartbeat quickens as you contemplate the debate you’ll have to wage with your parents. You feel wired with tension at all this stress in your life. To deal with stress, people must work to simplify their lives. Many different circumstances can create stress in people’s lives. A. B. C. Traffic situations and college debt are major causes of tension in life. The demands of college study can interfere with personal relationships. D. 3 Statement A is not covered in the paragraph. 7

23 Statements B and D are too narrow, each referring only to one or two of the causes of stress. CHAPTER 3 Implied Main Ideas Implied Main Ideas / Figuring Out Implied Main Ideas in Paragraphs You’re in your car headed home from school, but traffic is barely moving and, according to the radio report, getting worse by the minute. Suddenly, another motorist nearly removes your fender trying to cut into your lane. Your pulse accelerates as you shout insults at the driver, who cannot even hear you. Your stomach tenses as you contemplate the term paper that you have to work on tonight. If you don’t finish the paper soon, you won’t have time to study for your math test, not to mention your biology quiz. Then you remember that you promised the person you’re dating that the two of you would get together tonight, but there’s no way that can happen; another fight looms on the horizon. Your classmate asks your opinion of the tuition increase the college announced yesterday, which you’ve been trying not to think about. You’re already in debt, and your parents are bugging you about changing schools, but you don’t want to leave your friends. Your heartbeat quickens as you contemplate the debate you’ll have to wage with your parents. You feel wired with tension at all this stress in your life. Many different circumstances can create stress in people’s lives. B. C. Traffic situations and college debt are major causes of tension in life. The demands of college study can interfere with personal relationships. D

24 CHAPTER 3 Implied Main Ideas Implied Main Ideas / Figuring Out Implied Main Ideas in Paragraphs You’re in your car headed home from school, but traffic is barely moving and, according to the radio report, getting worse by the minute. Suddenly, another motorist nearly removes your fender trying to cut into your lane. Your pulse accelerates as you shout insults at the driver, who cannot even hear you. Your stomach tenses as you contemplate the term paper that you have to work on tonight. If you don’t finish the paper soon, you won’t have time to study for your math test, not to mention your biology quiz. Then you remember that you promised the person you’re dating that the two of you would get together tonight, but there’s no way that can happen; another fight looms on the horizon. Your classmate asks your opinion of the tuition increase the college announced yesterday, which you’ve been trying not to think about. You’re already in debt, and your parents are bugging you about changing schools, but you don’t want to leave your friends. Your heartbeat quickens as you contemplate the debate you’ll have to wage with your parents. You feel wired with tension at all this stress in your life. Many different circumstances can create stress in people’s lives. C. 3 When you think you have determined an implied main idea, be sure to test yourself by asking, “Does all or most of the material in the paragraph support this idea?”

25 CHAPTER 3 Implied Main Ideas Implied Main Ideas / Figuring Out Implied Main Ideas in Paragraphs You’re in your car headed home from school, but traffic is barely moving and, according to the radio report, getting worse by the minute. Suddenly, another motorist nearly removes your fender trying to cut into your lane. Your pulse accelerates as you shout insults at the driver, who cannot even hear you. Your stomach tenses as you contemplate the term paper that you have to work on tonight. If you don’t finish the paper soon, you won’t have time to study for your math test, not to mention your biology quiz. Then you remember that you promised the person you’re dating that the two of you would get together tonight, but there’s no way that can happen; another fight looms on the horizon. Your classmate asks your opinion of the tuition increase the college announced yesterday, which you’ve been trying not to think about. You’re already in debt, and your parents are bugging you about changing schools, but you don’t want to leave your friends. Your heartbeat quickens as you contemplate the debate you’ll have to wage with your parents. You feel wired with tension at all this stress in your life. Although the main idea is not directly stated, it is clearly implied by all the material in the paragraph. Many different circumstances can create stress in people’s lives. Main idea: Stress Topic:

26 CHAPTER 3 Implied Main Ideas Implied Main Ideas Putting Implied Main Ideas into Your Own Words In the previous paragraphs in this chapter, you have been asked to choose the implied main idea from a list of statements. In general, however, when you read you will often have to infer—figure out on your own—an author’s unstated main idea.

27 CHAPTER 3 Implied Main Ideas Implied Main Ideas / Putting Implied Main Ideas into Your Own Words To help you identify the topic and the main idea, remember these strategies you saw in Chapter 1: Look for repeated words as you read. 1 2 Try to mark major supporting details. Addition Words Major details are often signaled by such common addition words as the following:

28 CHAPTER 3 Implied Main Ideas Implied Main Ideas / Putting Implied Main Ideas into Your Own Words All people have a strong need to belong to groups, stemming from evolutionary pressures that increased people’s chance of survival and reproduction when in groups rather than in isolation. This need may also be driven by the desire to feel protected against threat and uncertainty in everyday life or to gain a greater sense of personal and social identity. Moreover, people join specific groups in order to accomplish things that they cannot accomplish as individuals. Neither symphonies nor football games can be played by one person alone, and many types of work require team effort. Further, people join groups because of the social status and identity that they offer. An important part of people’s feelings of self-worth comes from their identification with particular groups. Even a relatively low- status group can be a source of pride for individuals who are held in high esteem within the group; being big fish in small ponds can make people feel good about themselves, particularly people from individualist cultures. Finally, people may join groups simply because they like the members and want to have the opportunity to interact with them. What is the topic of this paragraph?

29 CHAPTER 3 Implied Main Ideas Implied Main Ideas / Putting Implied Main Ideas into Your Own Words All people have a strong need to belong to groups, stemming from evolutionary pressures that increased people’s chance of survival and reproduction when in groups rather than in isolation. This need may also be driven by the desire to feel protected against threat and uncertainty in everyday life or to gain a greater sense of personal and social identity. Moreover, people join specific groups in order to accomplish things that they cannot accomplish as individuals. Neither symphonies nor football games can be played by one person alone, and many types of work require team effort. Further, people join groups because of the social status and identity that they offer. An important part of people’s feelings of self-worth comes from their identification with particular groups. Even a relatively low- status group can be a source of pride for individuals who are held in high esteem within the group; being big fish in small ponds can make people feel good about themselves, particularly people from individualist cultures. Finally, people may join groups simply because they like the members and want to have the opportunity to interact with them. Joining groups Topic: What is the topic of this paragraph?

30 CHAPTER 3 Implied Main Ideas Implied Main Ideas / Putting Implied Main Ideas into Your Own Words All people have a strong need to belong to groups, stemming from evolutionary pressures that increased people’s chance of survival and reproduction when in groups rather than in isolation. This need may also be driven by the desire to feel protected against threat and uncertainty in everyday life or to gain a greater sense of personal and social identity. Moreover, people join specific groups in order to accomplish things that they cannot accomplish as individuals. Neither symphonies nor football games can be played by one person alone, and many types of work require team effort. Further, people join groups because of the social status and identity that they offer. An important part of people’s feelings of self-worth comes from their identification with particular groups. Even a relatively low- status group can be a source of pride for individuals who are held in high esteem within the group; being big fish in small ponds can make people feel good about themselves, particularly people from individualist cultures. Finally, people may join groups simply because they like the members and want to have the opportunity to interact with them. What is the implied main idea of this paragraph?

31 CHAPTER 3 Implied Main Ideas Implied Main Ideas / Putting Implied Main Ideas into Your Own Words All people have a strong need to belong to groups, stemming from evolutionary pressures that increased people’s chance of survival and reproduction when in groups rather than in isolation. This need may also be driven by the desire to feel protected against threat and uncertainty in everyday life or to gain a greater sense of personal and social identity. Moreover, people join specific groups in order to accomplish things that they cannot accomplish as individuals. Neither symphonies nor football games can be played by one person alone, and many types of work require team effort. Further, people join groups because of the social status and identity that they offer. An important part of people’s feelings of self-worth comes from their identification with particular groups. Even a relatively low- status group can be a source of pride for individuals who are held in high esteem within the group; being big fish in small ponds can make people feel good about themselves, particularly people from individualist cultures. Finally, people may join groups simply because they like the members and want to have the opportunity to interact with them. Addition word also Addition word Moreover, Addition word Further, Addition word Finally, Notice that many of the major details are signaled by addition words. What is the implied main idea of this paragraph?

32 CHAPTER 3 Implied Main Ideas Implied Main Ideas / Putting Implied Main Ideas into Your Own Words All people have a strong need to belong to groups, stemming from evolutionary pressures that increased people’s chance of survival and reproduction when in groups rather than in isolation. This need may also be driven by the desire to feel protected against threat and uncertainty in everyday life or to gain a greater sense of personal and social identity. Moreover, people join specific groups in order to accomplish things that they cannot accomplish as individuals. Neither symphonies nor football games can be played by one person alone, and many types of work require team effort. Further, people join groups because of the social status and identity that they offer. An important part of people’s feelings of self-worth comes from their identification with particular groups. Even a relatively low- status group can be a source of pride for individuals who are held in high esteem within the group; being big fish in small ponds can make people feel good about themselves, particularly people from individualist cultures. Finally, people may join groups simply because they like the members and want to have the opportunity to interact with them Each major detail is one of the reasons why people join groups. What is the implied main idea of this paragraph? People join groups for a number of reasons. Main idea:

33 CHAPTER 3 Implied Main Ideas Implied Main Ideas / Putting Implied Main Ideas into Your Own Words All people have a strong need to belong to groups, stemming from evolutionary pressures that increased people’s chance of survival and reproduction when in groups rather than in isolation. This need may also be driven by the desire to feel protected against threat and uncertainty in everyday life or to gain a greater sense of personal and social identity. Moreover, people join specific groups in order to accomplish things that they cannot accomplish as individuals. Neither symphonies nor football games can be played by one person alone, and many types of work require team effort. Further, people join groups because of the social status and identity that they offer. An important part of people’s feelings of self-worth comes from their identification with particular groups. Even a relatively low- status group can be a source of pride for individuals who are held in high esteem within the group; being big fish in small ponds can make people feel good about themselves, particularly people from individualist cultures. Finally, people may join groups simply because they like the members and want to have the opportunity to interact with them. People join groups for a number of reasons. Main idea:

34 CHAPTER 3 Implied Main Ideas Implied Main Ideas Implied Central Ideas in Longer Passages When you read, you may have to infer an author’s unstated central idea (also called a thesis) in a longer passage. The implied central idea that you come up with should cover all or most of the details in the passage.

35 CHAPTER 3 Implied Main Ideas Implied Main Ideas / Implied Central Ideas in Longer Passages To decide on the implied central idea, we must ask the same three questions we’ve already used to find main ideas: l “Who or what is this paragraph about?” That will be the topic. l And when we think we know the central idea, we can test it by asking, “Does all or most of the material in the passage support this idea?” l “What is the central point the author is trying to make about that topic?”

36 CHAPTER 3 Implied Main Ideas


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