Guiding Question What do you look for in the organization of a speech?
Thesis statement A sentence that focuses your audience’s attention on the central point of speech Usually in the introduction Example: “The Heimlich maneuver involves applying pressure to the victim’s diaphragm to expel air from the lungs and thus dislodge what is caught in the throat.”
Specific Purpose Expresses your speech goal Be realistic Be able to measure success Begin with “to” Example: “to have the audience understand the basic principles involved in the Heimlich maneuver.”
Introduction tell a story give a quotation make a startling statement refer to the audience, occasion, or a current event use appropriate humor share personal experience ask a thought-provoking question I. Attention Getter
Introduction II. Signal your thesis Review the thesis statement that you have developed & reveal your speech’s “bottom line,” alerting listeners to your topic and purpose in delivering the presentation III. Show your audience “What’s in it for them” IV. Establish your credibility V. Preview your main points
Body Present the main points of your speech 2 – 5 main points (3 is ideal) Each main point should focus on one main idea Parallel structure/coordination Concise and simple language Balance
Patterns of Organization Spatial – geographically or physically Temporal – chronological (time-based) sequence Causal – cause-and-effect relationship Comparison – major similarities & differences between the items Problem-cause-solution – problem exists, identifying the causes, and proposing a solution Criteria-application – proposes standards and then applies standards Narrative – each point is a story event that uses characters & a plot to convey your message Categorical – each point represents an important aspect of your topic
Conclusion I. Summarize Main Points Briefly remind the audience of your thesis and review all main ideas II. Finish with a Memorable Clincher Create a 30-second clincher that is tied to your introduction and leaves an imprint on your audience’s brains Give a quotation Tell a brief anecdote Make a concrete call to action Return to your opening theme Emotional message
18 Putting It All Together Use transitions and signposts among your main points Prepare a formal working outline which includes a bibliography Prepare a speaking outline and speaker’s notes using key words from outline Use visual aids that reflect the main points from outline
Stage One: Managing Anxiety Before Speaking Overcome uncertainty Prepare and practice Gain experience speaking Develop a positive attitude Establish realistic goals Avoid negative self-talk Don’t be overly concerned with grades Use visual imagery Use relaxation techniques Combine techniques
Stage Two: Managing Anxiety While Speaking Remember your audience is rooting for you Dress for confidence Breathe deeply and relax Smile before beginning Make eye contact Practice positive self-talk “I can do this” Use positive coping statements “It’s going well...I’m halfway home”
Stage Three: Managing Anxiety After Speaking Breathe deeply Congratulate yourself Be ready to record comments Focus on instructor/audience feedback List what you did well and what can be improved Use positive self-talk
Self-Talk To Avoid Self-criticizing “I’m a terrible speaker” Self-pressuring “I can’t afford anything less than an A” Catastophizing “This is the worst experience I’ll ever have”
Guiding Question What do you look for in the delivery of a speaker?
Methods of Delivery Writing out the speech completely and reading it to the audience is … Writing out the speech, committing it to memory and presenting it without notes is … Presenting a spontaneous, unrehearsed speech is... Preparing carefully but speaking spontaneously from brief notes is... Extemporaneous delivery Impromptu delivery Manuscript delivery Memorized delivery
Verbal Delivery Skills: Volume – loud or soft Tone – high or low pitch Rate of delivery – quickly or slowly Projection – “booming” your voice across large space Articulation – crispness of your spoken words Pronunciation – how correctly you say the words Pausing – leaving gaps between words or sentences
Important: Find your own voice as a speaker!
Nonverbal Delivery Skills Eye contact – panning Gestures – hand movements Physical movement – movement around room Proxemics – space & distance Personal appearance - impression you make Clothing Jewelry Hairstyle Grooming
Presentation Aids Make sure everyone can see and hear your aids. Control audience interaction with your aids. Maintain eye contact. Remember the purpose of your presentation aids.
Visual Aid Pointers Keep visual aids: SIMPLE! Easy to read Colorful Almost always: Handouts at the end! When in doubt…leave it out PRACTICE!
Final tips… Take control of your environment Rehearse Take control of your appearance Use NATURAL gestures Time your speech Avoid self-adapting behaviors Remember our tips on tackling speech anxiety!