# Canalization and Control in Automata Networks: Body Segmentation in Drosophila melanogaster Carrie Ganote Manuel Marques-Pita Luis M. Rocha.

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Canalization and Control in Automata Networks: Body Segmentation in Drosophila melanogaster Carrie Ganote Manuel Marques-Pita Luis M. Rocha

Parsing the Title “Canalization” To dig a canal through a whole sea of options and reach a single point on the other side

Parsing the Title “Automata” A robot? “Body Segmentation in Drosophila melanogaster” A B C D A diagram of states and transitions between them Head (Anterior) Tail (Posterior)

Q = Will I order Pizza Tonight? A.Am I craving pizza? B.Am I feeling lazy? C.Do my friends want pizza? Yes: Everyone wants pizza. I want pizza and I don’t want to go out! I’m not really feeling like pizza, but my friends really want pizza, and I don’t have any better ideas. No one wants pizza. I’m in the mood for pizza, but I’d rather go out with friends. I don’t want pizza, let’s go get something fancy. No: Micro-level Example

Q = Will I order Pizza Tonight? A.Am I craving pizza? B.Am I feeling lazy? C.Do my friends want pizza? ABCQ 1000 1011 1101 1111 0000 0010 0100 0111 ABCQ 1011 1101 1111 0111 A AND (B OR C) B AND C ABCQ 1011 1101 #111 ABCQ 1101 #111 It doesn’t matter what A is if B and C are true As long as one of the is true and one is false, it doesn’t matter which

Q = Will I order Pizza Tonight? A.Am I craving pizza? B.Am I feeling lazy? C.Do my friends want pizza?

Macro Level Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 How does the behavior of one cell (automata) affect the tissue, the organism (network)?

How canalizing? If the output was the same no matter what the inputs, this is maximally canalizing – i.e., “All roads lead to Rome” No critical inputs No controllers Guaranteed to converge to pattern leading to Rome Null power “Basins of attraction”

Wiggling What happens if we wiggle one of the inputs? Does this alter the result? How resistant to change is this input? How critical? ABCQ #111 ABCQ 111 ABCQ 01 ABCQ 111 ABCQ 01

Thoughts…. So much of biology is based on inferred and extrapolated data We know what genes do by seeing what goes wrong when they are disrupted The conclusions about the canalization of this system are based on this model The predictions are only as accurate as the model

Fin References Marques-Pita, M. and Rocha, L. M. (2013). Canalization and control in automata networks: Body segmentation in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE, 8(3):e55946+. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055946 Marques-Pita, M. and Rocha, L. M. (2011). Schema redescription in cellular automata: Revisiting emergence in complex systems. Saito, R., Smoot, M. E., Ono, K., Ruscheinski, J., Wang, P.-L. L., Lotia, S., Pico, A. R., Bader, G. D., and Ideker, T. (2012). A travel guide to cytoscape plugins. Nature methods, 9(11):1069-1076. doi:10.1038/nmeth.2212 Transmembrane protein. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved October 13,2014 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transmembrane_protein

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