Announcements Smartworks Chapter 7 & 8: Due Thursday, Nov. 18 Exam 3 – Thursday Nov. 18 – Chapters 6, 7, 8 LAST The LAST Observing Session is TONIGHT*! 7:00pm - Sundquist atrium (the weather will suck) 25 of you have not come yet! Tonight* is the last chance. If you don’t come tonight*, you can’t do the “visit to the observatory” report. *The other option is the BSAS meeting Thursday night in Nashville – 7:30 Adventure Science Museum. due Tuesday Dec. 2 Visit to the Observatory & Virtual Observations Reports due Tuesday Dec. 2
Winds and Circulation Parts of the Earth are heated differently. Vertical circulation of air (convection) distributes surface heating. Global winds carry heat from hot to cool regions. On Earth, Venus, and Mars, the circulation depends on heating pattern and rotation period.
Layers in the Earth’s Atmosphere Troposphere (surface to km altitude). –Temperature, pressure decline with altitude. –Water vapor mainly here. Tropopause (upper boundary of troposphere). Temperature stops declining with altitude. Stratosphere (15-50 km) –Temperature rises with altitude. –Ozone absorbs light, heats stratosphere.
Layers (continued) Mesosphere (50-90 km). –No ozone, temperature declines with altitude. –Upper mesosphere is coldest part of atmosphere. Ionosphere (> 90 km) –Ultraviolet radiation and solar wind can ionize atoms. –Solar wind = flow of particles from the Sun. –Ionize = strip electrons from an atom.
Venus Hot, dense atmosphere, completely cloud- covered. Surface pressure 92 times that on Earth. Mainly CO 2, strong greenhouse effect. Surface temperature about 740 K. Thick atmosphere means nearly uniform temperatures over the entire planet. Rotates very slowly.
Mars Cold, thin atmosphere. No oxygen, no ozone. Thin atmosphere = extreme temperature variations. Equator: up to 293 K (20 C). Pole: down to -150 C. Consequently large winds, which can make big dust storms.
The Moon and Mercury Almost totally airless. Combination of temperatures and low escape velocity means any atmosphere is lost. No erosion from wind, so old, cratered surfaces are retained.
Concept Quiz – The Moon Is Airless The Moon and the Earth have approximately the same average temperature. Why does the Moon lack an atmosphere? A.Comets, which deliver water and air, collide only with the Earth. B.The Moon has no life. Life produces the atmosphere. C.The Moon never had any volcanism. D.The Moon has a low escape velocity.
Concept Quiz – Earth’s Carbon The Earth started with about as much carbon as Venus has. In Venus, the carbon is mainly in the atmosphere. Where is it on the Earth? A.In rocks, the ocean, and in life. B.It was lost when the primary atmosphere escaped. C.It evaporated from Earth’s atmosphere while other gasses were retained.
Greenhouse Effect Lecture Tutorial Handout Work with a partner! Read the instructions and questions carefully. Discuss the concepts and your answers with one another. Take time to understand it now! Come to a consensus answer you both agree on and write complete thoughts into your LT. If you get stuck or are not sure of your answer, ask another group. 25 Minutes for this one.
Concept Quiz – Global Warming Burning oil and coal raises the CO 2 content of our atmosphere. By 2100, the Earth’s average temperature should be 2 to 5 K higher than now. Which will be larger? A.The rate Earth absorbs sunlight. B.The rate Earth emits infrared light. C.Both rates will be equal.
Size As Viewed From Earth
Seasons 25 degree tilt vs for Earth orbital eccentricity 1.38 – 1.66 AU Strong winds driven by seasonal changes (temperature gradients)