Presentation on theme: "Lesson #7 More fun with aspect, modals, the future, adverbials, and statives -- and a bit on dialects of English."— Presentation transcript:
Lesson #7 More fun with aspect, modals, the future, adverbials, and statives -- and a bit on dialects of English
Reminder You should be reading through the book (Chapter 2) to get a good idea of some of the many ways native speakers of English use aspect. There is an excellent discussion starting on p. 9.
There are some other important points about aspect that you need to consider.
Adverbials Adverbials are clause-level structures that modify verb phrases (and sometimes other structures). An adverbial can be: 1.An adverb phrase 2.A noun phrase 3.A prepositional phrase 4.A clause
Adverb Phrases An adverb phrase (one type of adverbial) is centered around an adverb.
Adverbs Typical adverbs are single words that end in -ly and answer questions loosely formed with “how” and “when.” Usually: When does this happen? This usually happens Thoroughly: How did he do it? He did it thoroughly.
Other adverbs Other adverbs don’t end in -ly but do answer the “how” and “when” questions. Examples: soon, now, often, then, still, yet, always, never, well
Adverbs with Tenses and Aspects Note that sometimes an adverb works well with one tense/aspect but not with another. Consider recently which works well with perfect and perfect progressive aspects and past tense progressive aspect, but not with present tense progressive.
Recently I have seen that movie recently. He has been exercising recently. He was talking to his mother recently. BUT NOT: I am learning grammar recently.
Frequently, usually, often These adverbs are often (though not always) used with present and past tense, simple aspects and rarely if ever with the progressive. Examples: My husband often stays up past midnight. BUT NOT: My husband is often staying up past midnight.
Prepositional Phrase Adverbials Some prepositional phrase adverbials are frequently used with perfect/perfect progressive aspect. Example: For XXX Since XXX By XXX
Examples I have spoken Spanish since 1968. I have spoken Spanish for 41 years. By next year, I will have spoken Spanish for 42 years.
Noun Phrase Adverbials Noun phrase adverbials are adverbs formed from a noun phrase. These often answer the “when” question. Examples: Last week, tonight, today.
Time and Tense with Modals and Aspects Review point: there are only two tenses in English: past and present.
Modals and the Future Modals are commonly used to help us talk about the future. But modals are tricky (ask any ESL learner). They aren’t “clean.” A person can use some present tense and past tense modals to talk about the future. So in clauses with modals in the verb phrases, adverbs take on special importance.
Will and Shall “Will” and “shall” (less common) are two words we use to express the future time (note, I did NOT say “tense”).
Will can be used with verbs in many different aspects, but all expressing the future. I will have a rum and coke at 7 p.m. tonight. (present tense, simple aspect). I will be having a rum and coke at 7 p.m. tonight. (present tense, progressive aspect) I will have had two rums and cokes by 7 p.m. (present tense, perfect aspect) I will have been having my third rum and coke by 7:15 p.m. (present tense, perfect progressive aspect).
Note also that past tense modals can express the future: I could have a rum and coke tonight. (past tense, simple aspect: expresses the future) And the present: I could be having a rum and coke (but I ’ m here teaching English instead). (past tense, progressive aspect: expresses the present that isn ’ t real) And the past! I could have had a rum and coke (but instead I had a White Russian). (past tense, perfect aspect: expresses a past that did not happen). I could have been having a rum and coke (but instead there I was drinking milk). (past tense, perfect progressive aspect: expresses a past that did not happen).
The Future... Continued One more way to express the future is to use the present tense, progressive aspect with an adverb that clearly expresses time. Examples: I am leaving for Madrid tomorrow.
The Statives There is another class of verbs called statives. Statives are rarely used in the progressive (or perfect progressive) aspect. Statives are often verbs that express cognition, desire, and sense.
A few examples: Be: Now I am a little tired. (not: I am being a little tired). Believe: I believe God exists. (not: I am believing God exists). Belong: It belongs to me. (not: It is belonging to me). Exist: God exists. (not: God is existing). Forget: I forget her name. (not: I am forgetting her name). Hate: I hate this show. (not: I am hating this show). Have (meaning to possess): She has a beautiful family. (not: She is having a beautiful family). Smell: Now I smel it. (not: Now I am smelling it.)
Switch Hitters Some verbs can have a stative and a non-stative use, depending on the meaning. Example: I have a dog. (possess -- stative) I am having a good time. (experience -- not stative)
Statives in ESL Statives are hard to learn -- and so learners’ dictionaries often mark the entries with [not usually in the progressive] if the verb is a stative. Check out: http://www.ldoce.comhttp://www.ldoce.com
Dialects and Aspect Some dialects of English use aspects differently than North American Standard does. In Indian English (a major dialect spoken by at least 100 million people), verbs that we in North America make statives are regularly used in the progressive.
Sample (From a recent call to my bank) Phone rep: Are you understanding my explanation? Me: Not really. Phone rep: I am not having a better explanation. I will get my manager. He may be knowing another way.
Final Exercise Consider these errors and decide what the problem is and what you would tell the student: 1.It is ten years since our wedding day. 2.I am believing him despite his flawed character. (Student is from the Punjab region of India). 3.I went to Europe now.