Presentation on theme: "Song Literature: Ci poetry Also called lyric song, lyric meter; written for performance first appeared in the later Tang, probably in the 8 th century,"— Presentation transcript:
Song Literature: Ci poetry Also called lyric song, lyric meter; written for performance first appeared in the later Tang, probably in the 8 th century, became popular in the Song; often reflected daily life in the Song “ Bathing Babies, ” Anonymous, Song, on silk fan, Freer Museum, USA
In Chinese, one does not speak of "writing" ci but of "filling in" ci; that is, "filling in lyrics" to a known melody. Lyrics are identified by the title of the tune prefaced with "to”, e.g., “To the tune of ‘Washing Creek Sand’.” Right: “Eighteen Scholars (in the Tang),” anonymous, Song, National Palace Museum, Taipei, Taiwan
Ci Poetry: Characteristics lyric songs before the 11 th century lyric songs before the 11 th century Authored by men but performed by hired women singers at parties Authored by men but performed by hired women singers at parties A situation of men writing words, often in the voices of women, to be sung back to them. A situation of men writing words, often in the voices of women, to be sung back to them. treated events in their daily lives, often emotional treated events in their daily lives, often emotional “Entertaining Kids with theatrical performance” by Su Hanchen, Song
Nature: A poetry of elegance, languor and sentimentality--regarded as the most refined of all Chinese literary forms, the only one capable of articulating melancholy and a certain kind of erotica. Song authors broadened the content of ci, using it to narrate events in contemporary urban life Structure: has "tune patterns," a matrix containing a set number of lines of given length, rhymes in fixed positions, and tonal requirements at certain positions in each lines Lines of varying length: to fit the irregular, melodic pattern
Famous Ci Poets before the Song Wen Tingyun (812- 872) Wen Tingyun (812- 872) Probably the best of the ci poets in the Tang, who inspired many Song ci writers. Probably the best of the ci poets in the Tang, who inspired many Song ci writers. Wei Zhuang (836-910) Wei Zhuang (836-910) Probably the best ci poet in the end of the Tang dynasty Probably the best ci poet in the end of the Tang dynasty
Examples of tune patterns “The Moon over the West River” ( 西江月 xī jiāng yuè ) “Wind through Pines” ( 風入松 fēng rù sōng ) “Deva-like Barbarian” (Bodhisattva Barbarian) ( 菩薩蠻 pú sà mán ) “Telling the Inner Most Feelings” ( 訴衷情 sù zhōng qíng ) “Song of Picking Mulberry” ( 採桑子 căi sāng zi ) “Joy of Eternal Union” ( 永遇樂 yǒng yù lè ) “Dreaming of the South” ( 望江南 wàng jiāng nán ) “Lotus-leaf Cup” ( 荷葉杯 hé yè bēi )
To the Tune “West of the Little Market” by Liu Yong I’m thinking of someone Sweet face, just sixteen Born beautiful— She has got to be a minx. Where she is most remarkable Is when she laughs and her dimples show. She has a hundred ways and a thousand charms, And the more you embrace her The more sweet and slippery she gets
To the Tune “West of the Little Market” by Liu Yong (Con’t) I’ve neglected her a long time. Last night in a dream We made love Like old times. Then just when I was happy The cock next door woke me up. Everything was quiet But I could not get back to sleep; The setting moon outside my window was wasted.
By Wang Shen, Song “ Women and Morning Mirror ” On silk Woman poet: Li Qingzhao (ca.1084?-1151) The greatest woman poet of Song times and perhaps in all of Chinese history Not only a poet, but also an erudite scholar, connoisseur, bibliophile, collector of antiques,… Her poems are characterized by the use of onomatopoetic expressions.
To the Tune of “Every Sound Slowly” by Li Qingzhao Search. Search. Seek. Seek. Cold. Cold. Clear. Clear. Sorrow. Sorrow. Pain. Pain. Pity. Pity. Times of hot flashes and sudden chills. It’s hard to come to rest. Three cups, two bowls of tasteless wine, How should he late burst in like a gust of wind? Wild geese fly, wrenching my heart. Really, from old days we know each other.
Li Qingzhao (con’t) Golden flowers pile up on the ground, Faded, dead. Who would pick them now? All alone, waiting at my window, How does it become dark? The wutong tree blend drizzling rain. Until dusk falls. Drip. Drip. Drop. Drop. This condition, can the mere word melancholy suffice?
To the tune of “Deva-like Barbarian” Blossom bright, the moon dark, shadowed in thin mist, Tonight’s just right for making my way to you--- In stocking feet she goes out by the scented stairs, Holding in her hand her gold-threaded slippers On the south side of the painted hall she sees him, Clings to him for a time, trembling--- It’s so hard for me to slip away, [tonight] you may love me any way you please!
Su Shi (Su Dongpo,1037- 1101) The best of the Song ci poets Brought ci to a great height and new frontier Style is generally masculine Most widely read: “Song of River City,” “Prelude to Water Music,” “Immortal at the River” “Village Physician,” by Li Tang, Southern Song, on silk, National Palace Musuem, Taipei, Taiwan
“ Prelude to Water Music ” ( 水調頭歌 ) by Su Shi (On Mid-autumn night of the year bingchen (1076), I drank merrily until dawn, got very drunk and wrote this poem, all the while thinking longingly of Ziyou.)bingchen Bright moon, when did you appear? Lifting my wine, I question the blue sky. Tonight in the palaces and halls of heaven What year is it, I wonder? I would like to ride the moon, make my home there, Only I fear in porphyry towers, under jade eaves, In those high places the cold would be more than I could bear. So I rise and dance and play with your pure beams, Though this human world — how can it compare with yours? 明月幾時有？ 把酒問青天。 不知天上宮闕， 今夕是何年？ 我欲乘風歸去， 又恐瓊樓玉宇， 高處不勝寒。 起舞弄清影， 何似在人間 ?
Circling my red chamber Low in the curtained door You light my sleeplessness* Surely you bear us no ill will — Why then must you be so round at times when we humans are parted? People have their grieves and joys, their joinings and separations, the moon its dark and clear times, its roundings and waning. As ever in such matters, things are hardly the way we wish. I only hope we may have long long lives, May share the moon ’ s beauty, though a thousand miles apart. 轉朱閣， 低綺戶， 照無眠。 不應有恨， 何事長向別時圓？ 人有悲歡離合， 月有陰晴圓缺， 此事古難全。 但願人長久， 千里共長嬋娟。
Lu You (1125-1210) Lu You (1125-1210) Most prolific poet in Chinese history; left behind nearly ten thousand poems in his collection Most prolific poet in Chinese history; left behind nearly ten thousand poems in his collection Noted for his passionate patriotism Noted for his passionate patriotism “Phoenix Hairpin” “Phoenix Hairpin” Xin Qiji (1140-1207) Xin Qiji (1140-1207) Most prolific Song author of lyrics; 626 survive Most prolific Song author of lyrics; 626 survive Lyrics show passion and advocacy of patriotism Lyrics show passion and advocacy of patriotism Tended to divorce the metrical patterns of the genre from their earlier musical background Tended to divorce the metrical patterns of the genre from their earlier musical background “Ugly Rouge” “Ugly Rouge”
“ Pure Serene Music ” by Li Qingzhao Year after year in the snow Always we ’ d pick plum blossoms, drunk as we were, Shattering every cluster — what did we care?--- And their clear tears fell all over our clothes. This year by sea ’ s bend, sky ’ s boarder, Lonely, lonely, gray invading both temples, I watch, as evening comes, the wind rising And know that I ‘ ll be hard put to discover a single blossom 清平樂 年年雪裏， 常插梅花醉， 採盡梅花無意， 贏得滿衣清淚！ 今年海角天涯， 蕭蕭兩鬢生華。 看取晚來風勢， 故應難看梅花。
Women in the Song literacy increased in female population literacy increased in female population Women had more opportunities to receive education Women had more opportunities to receive education Educated women became “writing women” Educated women became “writing women” Women joined mercantile circles Women joined mercantile circles Women became active business people Women became active business people “ Bodhisattva Guanyin ” by Jia Shigu, Southern Song, National Palace Museum, Taipei, Taiwan
Efforts were made to curb women ’ s influence and their increasing power Efforts were made to curb women ’ s influence and their increasing power Ideas and rules of “ chastity ” were imposed on women Ideas and rules of “ chastity ” were imposed on women Confucians pushed public recognition of the virtue of “ female chastity ” Confucians pushed public recognition of the virtue of “ female chastity ” Ideas of “ a woman does not serve two husbands ” became widely accepted, although women were allowed to remarry Ideas of “ a woman does not serve two husbands ” became widely accepted, although women were allowed to remarry “Powdered Ladies,” by Su Hanchen, Song, Boston Art Musuem
Song women’s status changed because of marriage— Women were given lavish dowry when they were married to scholarly families Books on family rules written to limit women’s freedom Yuan Cai’s family rules: “Women should not take part in affairs outside the home” “Four Beauties”, anonymous, Song, color on silk