3Recall: Saturation is when evaporation = condensation Also remember that the higher the air temperature, the more water vapor will be present in the air at saturation.
4Relative humidity depends on two factors: Relative humidity = actual water vapor in air/maximum water vapor possibleRelative humidity depends on two factors:the actual amount of moisture in the atmospherethe temperatureremember that temperature determines how much water vapor can be in the air at saturationWe can express/calculate Relative Humidity in a variety of ways:RH=[(vapor pressure)/(saturation vapor pressure)] X 100%RH=[(mixing ratio)/(saturation mixing ratio)] X 100%
5Dew Point = the temperature to which air must be cooled in order to become saturated Dewpoint temperature is a better "absolute" measure of moisture in the air.Why? Because it doesn't change when the air temperature changes; it only changes when the moisture content changes. (Assuming constant pressure). For example:TemperatureDew PointRelative Humidity301029%2053%100%
6When air temperature = dew point temperature, RH = 100% High dew points mean high moisture content of the air, which often translates to muggy and uncomfortable conditions.In general, most people consider dew points above 20 degrees C very uncomfortable (regardless of air temperature and relative humidity).NOTE: Dew point temperature can NEVER be greater than the actual air temperatureWhen air temperature = dew point temperature, RH = 100%One of the clues a meteorologist uses for forecasting tonight's low temperature is to look at today's dew point: if no fronts are expected to come through, tonight's low temperature will not get much below today's dew point. WHY?
7Quick summary of conditions of saturation Air temp = dewpoint tempRelative humidity = 100%Mixing ratio = saturation mixing ratioVapor pressure = saturation vapor pressure
8Once saturation is reached: If more water is added, then condensation will dominateIf temperature is decreased, then condensation will dominateIn other words, a cloud will form (given presence of CCN, etc.)
9To make a cloud we need really only 3 things: MoistureCloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) or Ice Nuclei (IN) (more detail later on this)A method of cooling the air to saturation
10So how, exactly, do convective clouds form in the atmosphere? Pressure is essentially the “weight” of the atmosphere above youAs you go up, less atmosphere is above you, so pressure is lessThis is why your ears “pop” as you drive up a mountain or go up in an airplane-- basically air inside your ears has retained the pressure of the lower elevation and starts to expand
11Consider a “parcel” of air at 1000 millibars (that is, at the ground) Assume that the parcel is not saturatedThe parcel will exert 1000 mb of pressure to counteract the atmospheric pressure acting on the parcel. i.e., parcel pressure is in equilibrium
12If we take this parcel of air at Earth’s surface and somehow lift it up to 500 mb: as we go higher in the atmosphere, there is less atmosphere above uswith fewer molecules pressing on our parcel of air, the molecules in the parcel can move more and the parcel can expandwhen a parcel expands, the molecules are “doing work”when molecules do work, they lose energy so the parcel coolsThat is – RISING AIR ALWAYS COOLSΔU = Q – W
13Short aside: first law of thermodynamics ΔU = Q – WChange in internal energyHeat added to the systemWork done by the systemWhen air parcels rise (or sink), the process is labeled adiabatic. Physically, this simply means the parcel keeps its heat constant (remember, heat and temperature are not the same!!) (Q in the equation above does not change)Recall: temperature is a measure of kinetic energy. As kinetic energy increases, temp will increase. As kinetic energy decreases, temp decreases.So – we know that rising/sinking parcels are “doing work” – thus we know they are change their internal energy.ParcelTemperatureInternal energyWorkRisescoolsdecreasesdone bySinkswarmsincreasesdone to
14Short derivation based on the first law of thermodynamics (derivation posted on course web page).
15PARCEL lapse ratesDon’t confuse “parcel” lapse rates with “environmental lapse rates” – the two are different!Rising air parcels will COOL.IF UNSATURATED, their rate of cooling is fixed: 10°C / km (ten degrees celsius per kilometer).A parcel that rises 500 m (1/2 km) will cool 5C, one that rises 1267 m will cool 12.67C. The math is simple This lapse rate is called the “dry adiabatic lapse rate”.Sinking parcels are – by definition – unsaturated. WHY?Their rate of warming is fixed at the dry adiabatic lapse rate.I.e., sinking parcels always warm at 10°C / km
16What happens when the rising parcel becomes saturated?
17As an air parcel rises and cools, the relative humidity increases When the parcel cools to the point when the parcel temperature and the dew point temperature are equal, RH will be 100%If lifting continues, the parcel will continue to cool – BUT the parcel would be “supersaturated” (not good)Thus, it MUST “expel” water vapor – & condensation occursThe difference between wet adiabatic lapse rate (6 C / km) and dry adiabatic lapse rate (10 C / km) is due to latent heat releaseNotice also that MOST rising parcels first cool at the dry rate, then reach saturation & cool at the wet rate.
20Cloud Formation When we lift the air, where will condensation occur? Depends on the moisture content of the air that is being lifted. The lifting condensation level (LCL) is the altitude (usually expressed as a pressure) at which the lifted air is cooled dry adiabatically to saturation. Clouds will form at this level.Typo: 6C/km
21Now all we have to do is get the parcel of air lifted Now all we have to do is get the parcel of air lifted. We can do that in four ways:Orographic LiftingFrontal Uplift (also known as frontal wedging)ConvergenceConvection
23Orographic Lifting Air is forced upward by topography As air is forced up the mountains (windward side) it cools, forms clouds, and maybe precipitationAs air goes down the mountain on the leeward side, it is compressed and warmsTherefore it is usually wetter on the windward side than on the leeward side.
24Atmospheric stability Why do some clouds stay relatively thin while others may grow to the depth of the troposphere?-- It has to do with how STABLE the atmosphere is at a given time and placeWhy do clouds almost never grow up into the stratosphere?
25Basic definition of stability: When air parcels are warmer than their environment, they are unstable (and will seek to rise)When air parcels are cooler than their environment, they are stable (and seek to sink)
26How do we find out what the temperature of the “environment” is? Weather balloons are the primary source of data above the ground. They provide valuable input for computer forecast models, local data for meteorologists to make forecasts and predict storms, and data for research.
27Twice a day, every day of the year, weather balloons are released simultaneously from almost 900 locations worldwide, including 92 released by the National Weather Service in the US and its territories. The balloon flights last for around 2 hours, can drift as far as 125 miles away, and rise up to over 100,000 ft. (about 20 miles) in the atmosphere.These balloon-borne instruments are sent aloft just prior to 0000 UTC and 1200 UTC on each day. During their ascent, they radio back to the ground-based receiving station a nearly continuous stream of information until the balloon bursts at approximately 10 mb.
28Now that we have data from the atmosphere, what do we do with it? The data that are collected from radiosonde instruments are called soundings. Also, when these data are plotted on special charts called thermodynamic diagrams, these plots are called soundings.Lower pressures correspond to higher altitudes. So most thermodynamic diagrams (thermo diagrams, for short) have pressure plotted along the vertical axis (decreasing upward on the graph), and temperature plotted along the horizontal axis. Thus, the top of the graph corresponds to higher altitudes, and the right side corresponds to warmer temperatures.
29On this blank graph, we can plot the sounding measurements such as a temperature and dew point for a variety of heights.We get a sense of how saturated the environment is at certain pressure levels.Dots are temperature (T), and x's are dew-point temperature (Td)
30Dewpoint temperature (green) An actual sounding has much more information on it than just temperature and dew pointMost important use of a sounding:-- show (graphically plot) how atmospheric variables CHANGE WITH HEIGHTAir temperature (red)Dewpoint temperature (green)Wind speed & direction (black “flags” & “barbs”)Pressure (blue), & by analogy, height
34Stability summary 3 types of environmental stability: Absolutely stableAbsolutely unstable (very uncommon)Does occur in few tens of feet above parking lots & roads in summer (mirages are often co-located)Conditionally unstableConditional on when the rising air parcel reaches saturation (i.e., the height of the LCL)If parcel can maintain its temperature WARMER than environment, then it remains unstable