Presentation on theme: "BELLWORK Read pages 74-75 and answer the following: 1.Describe a caudillo. Who were they? Characteristics? Involvement in independence movements? 2.Explain."— Presentation transcript:
BELLWORK Read pages 74-75 and answer the following: 1.Describe a caudillo. Who were they? Characteristics? Involvement in independence movements? 2.Explain the reasons caudillos were able to come to power following the independence wars in South America. 3.Why have the views on caudillos changed? What’s different about the modern vs. revisionist views of caudillos? 4.Describe regionalism. How did this lead to the rise of caudillos? 5.Define peon. 6.THINKER: In what ways and to what extent was the rule of Spain and, to a lesser degree, Portugal responsible for the political, economic and social upheaval in Latin America during the 19th century that led to the emergence of caudillos?
Homework! Tonight, you will focus on Argentina post-revolution and the rise of Juan Manuel Rosas. In 1821, Bernardino Rivadavia came to power and implemented education, social and economic reform. On the other hand, he was a nationalist who tried to centralize the government, which conservative caudillos did not support. After his proposed Constitution was defeated, he went into exile in 1827. Rosas became governor of Buenos Aires in 1829. He was a regionalist who focused on foreign relations and maintaining control through force! Tonight, you will read pgs. 214-217 in the LA book and take notes on his rise to power and reforms. Follow the worksheet!
Nation-Building in Latin America The Rise and Rule of the Caudillos
Discussion Describe the economy of Latin America post-revolution. Explain the racial divisions in Latin America post-revolution.
Post-Revolution Latin America After winning their independence, the new Latin American states began a long, uphill struggle to achieve economic and political stability.After winning their independence, the new Latin American states began a long, uphill struggle to achieve economic and political stability. Lower classes had few rightsLower classes had few rights Reliance on slave labor dominated the economyReliance on slave labor dominated the economy Since there was little change in property ownership, the racial, ethnic, and social class lines remained essentially the same.Since there was little change in property ownership, the racial, ethnic, and social class lines remained essentially the same. Independence produced social upheaval:Independence produced social upheaval: –Opened the gap within the elite, dividing aristocratic supporters of the old social order from others who wanted a more democratic order and power to the middle class Even though the new constitutions granted Mestizoes, mulattoes, and natives more rights, they were still heavily oppressed by the white landowners.Even though the new constitutions granted Mestizoes, mulattoes, and natives more rights, they were still heavily oppressed by the white landowners. –Exclusion from the political process, intense exploitation by white landowners, priests, and government officials –Increased the distrust and separation between the social classes However, the wars for independence did enable a few natives and mestizos to rise high on the military, political, and social scales.However, the wars for independence did enable a few natives and mestizos to rise high on the military, political, and social scales. The rise of these mestizo or mulatto leaders inspired fears in some members of the Creole elite, and the divisions widened.The rise of these mestizo or mulatto leaders inspired fears in some members of the Creole elite, and the divisions widened.
“It may appear unjust to exterminate savages, destroy civilizations, and conquer peoples who occupy land that is rightly theirs, but thanks to this injustice, America, instead of being abandoned to savages who are incapable of progress, is today occupied by the Caucasian race, the most perfect, intelligent, beautiful, and progressive of all the races that inhabit the Earth” –Argentinean leader, Domingo Sarmiento
Discussion How were the social structures of Latin America and North America similar post- revolution? What problems existed in both regions?
Post-Revolution Latin America After independence, economic life initially stagnated –Reliant on foreign powers –European demand for Latin American goods was low –Goods could not compete with cheap, factory-made European imports –Latin American states did not trade with one another = wars The slow pace of economic activity, and absence of interregional trade encouraged local self-sufficiency, isolation, political instability, and even chaos. Because of these factors, the period from 1820-1870 was an age of violence, alternating dictatorship, and revolution Led to the emergence of caudillos: “strongman,” who attempted to solve these problems.
Caudillos Caudillo – military/political leader at the head of authoritarian power Typically very passionate & charismatic Reasons they came to power: –Regionalism (differences between territories) –Ideological differences (liberalism vs. conservatism) –Foreign intervention (ties remained to Spain/Portugal) The complex social, political, and economic problems that ensued following the independence wars created contexts for these strong leaders to become forceful social actors in building and governing new nations.
Caudillos They often represented the grievances of different interest groups: ranchers, farmers, merchants, landowners, miners, lower classes, Indians –Some focused on lower classes (Carrera - Guatemala) –Others were of mixed racial and social origins (Paez - Venezuela) –While others defended their nation from foreign intervention (Guemes - Argentina) Caudillos were typically successful and popular officers that fought in the wars of independence –Power from landholdings, control of local militia, supported by peons (former soldiers) and loyalty from lower classes Local support was like a patron-client relationship –Caudillo provided work and security to the masses, and in return he allowed workers to maintain small land and livestock holdings
Discussion Even though the caudillos came to power by force, and often ruled like a dictator, many were very popular and supported by the people. Why do you think this is? What was their alternative? Is it possible to be an effective/good dictator?
Caudillos Caudillos emerged from both liberal and conservative sides –Liberalism – attracted middle class, professional men, and other groups that enjoyed little power in the past and were dissatisfied with the existing order; inspired by the U.S. & advocated a federal form of government, guarantees of individual rights, education, and an end to special privileges for the clergy and military –Conservatism – drew most of its support from the great landowners and their urban allies; sought to retain many of the social arrangements of the colonial era and favored a highly centralized government
Discussion How are the political systems similar between Latin America and North America post-Revolution? Why were authoritarian leaders able to rise to power in Latin America, but not in North America?
Rise & Rule of Caudillos To learn more about the rise & rule of caudillos, you are going to complete the graphic organizer for your notes. Use the Latin American textbook. Read and summarize the main points!