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© E. Kowch 2002 Instructional Design Welcome to Instructional Design (EDER 673 L.91 ) From Calgary With Asst. Professor Eugene G. Kowch January 14, Seminar.

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Presentation on theme: "© E. Kowch 2002 Instructional Design Welcome to Instructional Design (EDER 673 L.91 ) From Calgary With Asst. Professor Eugene G. Kowch January 14, Seminar."— Presentation transcript:

1 © E. Kowch 2002 Instructional Design Welcome to Instructional Design (EDER 673 L.91 ) From Calgary With Asst. Professor Eugene G. Kowch January 14, Seminar One (A Synchronous Meeting)

2 © E. Kowch 2002 Instructional Design Agenda for tonight Introductions - getting to know each other Vclass Tips WebCT Tips An overview of the Course The History of Instructional Design The Context of Instructional Design Readings / Tasks for Next Thursday’s Class Housekeeping

3 © E. Kowch 2002 Instructional Design Class Introductions A Guide… My Name is… My Location / what it’s like where I live… My professional practice today (K-12, Higher Ed, Industry, Government) My interests outside work (and learning) include…. Presently, I develop instruction for…. I’m in my Nth course in the M.Ed program.. From this course, I would like to achieve… With all this education I am getting, I would ideally like to …. Introductions

4 © E. Kowch 2002 Instructional Design Audio Conferencing (Vclass) Communication Tips Ten second idea.. Use the X symbol by your name if you are experiencing tech difficulties - let’s try the (check) and ( X) signals… Positive discourse really counts online - it makes the learning community stronger and we don’t feel so remote from each other (Praeger, 1999). The message center is great - but it can distract you from the interactive goings-on. For Centra-Experienced Users - What’s new with Vclass You can run it on a Mac computer We are all new Vclass users! Only the instructor can load your Power Point files There are new tech support numbers, protocols (see course outline) There is no breakout room feature just yet We will use WebCT mail as our mail host for this class: a.ucalgary.cahttp://webct- a.ucalgary.ca You should have turnaround in 2 days Recordings are available of the class sessions Housekeeping

5 © E. Kowch 2002 Instructional Design WebCt Hints We may use these features in your WebCT Environment To link to the Course Home Page: To each other & send attached files Put the Subject of your in your “To” message please To engage in discussion threads on new topics To chat in real time using text, -- students can get a transcript of that Chat from Gene Hints about Discussion Threads: 1. Respond to an item by pressing “post” while the message you respond (to) is on the screen. 2. Include URLs if you like - make your note significant - I do not do a statistical check of “inputs”.. I read for content in the discussion 3. Reflect on the readings / class discussions in your debates - keep an eye on the purpose of the course. 4. Brief, poignant responses mean a lot to your fellow students as they read the threads. Housekeeping

6 © E. Kowch 2002 Instructional Design Agenda for tonight Introductions - getting to know each other Vclass Tips WebCT Tips An overview of the Course The History of Instructional Design The Context of Instructional Design Readings / Tasks for Next Thursday’s Class Housekeeping

7 © E. Kowch 2002 Instructional Design Course Overview Text Books: Reigeluth, C. M. (Ed.). (1999). Instructional-design theories and models volume II: A new paradigm of instructional theory. London. Lawrence-Erlbaum Associates. Anglin, G. J. (Ed.). (1995). Instructional technology: Past, Present and Future (2 nd Ed.). Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited. Overview

8 © E. Kowch 2002 Instructional Design Overview

9 © E. Kowch 2002 Instructional Design We can cover any topics that interest you.. You are a storehouse of ideas…

10 © E. Kowch 2002 Instructional Design 673 Course Objectives : 1. Explore theories of learning and instruction, exploring implications and possible applications for practice, 2. Explore, develop and articulate your own instructional design model- to see how theory and practice can be articulated, 3. Design and present efficient, effective and appealing instructional interventions informed and referenced to theory, 4. Participate and present in a collaborative learning community to exchange and consider developing design ideas as instructional designers, 5. Examine the potential and limitations of media and technology usage. 6. Analyze critically some models an instructional interventions associated with the selection and sequencing of content across the instructional spectrum and 7. Explore and analyze the matching of instructional strategies to characteristics of learners and content.

11 © E. Kowch 2002 Instructional Design Phase 1: Sketch your initial Instructional Design Model Due: Jan 23 rd (5%) Phase 2 Develop your Informed Instructional Design Model. Create an APA format paper Due: Feb. 24 th (15%) Phase 2 Informed Instructional Design Model Peer Review Process: Post a summary of your personal ID model in an online discussion thread. Due: Your posting is required in the discussion thread on February 27 th. Instructional Blueprint: Now use your Phase 2 Model to actually develop an outline for some instruction: Generate a report Due: April 3 rd (20%) Phase 3: Final Personal ID Model Submission (Report) and Audiographic Presentation (30%) Due: April 10 th or 17 th * see outline Peer Feedback helps you refine your model Researching Literature, Theory and Practice Peer Feedback helps you refine your model Flow of the Course: Deliverables

12 © E. Kowch 2002 Instructional Design 673 Assignments / Deliverables 1. Participation & Discussion Overall(10)%Ongoing 2. Activities & Assignments(20%)Ongoing 3. Discussion Thread Contributions & Leadership(10%)Ongoing 4. Your personal ID Model Creation: I. A Sketch of your ID Model (5%) Jan 23rd II. An Informed ID Model Creation (An APA quality Paper) (15%) Feb 24th III. A final ID Model Creation (a Report) (20%)Apr 17th 5. Your Final Instruction Design Blueprint & Presentation(30%)April 3rd Due

13 © E. Kowch 2002 Instructional Design Let’s get started, Instructional Designers!

14 © E. Kowch 2002 Instructional Design Agenda for tonight Introductions - getting to know each other Vclass Tips WebCT Tips An overview of the Course The History of Instructional Design The Context of Instructional Design Readings / Tasks for Next Thursday’s Class Housekeeping

15 © E. Kowch 2002 Instructional Design Before the 1920s: Birth of an Empirical Knowledge Base for Education * The mind is a muscle Just work it and it will grow. Outcomes are not considered Thorndike (Columbia) 1. Moved from “learning law” study to think that instruction should consider social goals 2. Advocated “Educational Measurement” (of learning outcomes) History of ID * From Schrock, S in Anglin (1995)

16 © E. Kowch 2002 Instructional Design The 1920s: Educators Create Learning Objectives Schools should provide experiences related to social activity (Bobbitt, 1918). The objectives of schooling could be found by analysing the skills necessary for living. Objectives-driven learning A reliance on self-instructional materials allowing students to progress at their own pace The Winnetka Schools Plan was self paced, self instructional and self corrective Used workbooks Incorporated diagnostic tests and self-administered (student) readiness tests. New tasks were undertaken at proven task (mastery, competency). Goal Assessment evolved (Can they do the task?) History of ID

17 © E. Kowch 2002 Instructional Design The 1930s: Social Forces lead to Behavioral Objectives and Formative Evaluation The Great Depression Decreased funds for education and research The “Progressive Movement” Advocates wanted student initiated activities (but the outcomes were not “objective”).. So this died. PostWar pressures to increase # of students in High School High Schools needed a Vocational and Academic Stream (Alternative Curricula) Tyler developed tests of intended learning outcomes Study confirmed that objectives could be clarified if written in terms of student behaviors (Guba & Lincoln, 1989). (TSWBAT, anyone? :-) Assessments of objectives were used to revise and refine new curricula until the curricula created an “improved level of acheivement”. We know this as formative evaluation today History of ID

18 © E. Kowch 2002 Instructional Design 1940s: Instructional Media Emerge and R&D Emerges The end of WWII created thousands of military personnel who had to be trained rapidly. The Government created thousands of instructional films. Still Photos, audio recordings, transparencies were used. Funding allowed for a lot of experimentation & study The role of the instructional technologist emerged The basic ID development team began: Designer SME Producer History of ID

19 © E. Kowch 2002 Instructional Design 1950s: Programmed Instruction and Task Analysis Emerge… Skinner’s operant conditioning optimal human learning could be achieved by careful control and reinforcement of behavioral objectives Programmed instruction evolved: Clear behavioral objectives Small instruction frames Self pacing Active learner response to inserted questions Immediate feedback as to correctness of response (Heinich, 1990). It was dead boring. Instruction like this could be applied with mass media (Schwier, 2003). Analytical procedures developed: Task Analyis (Air Force) Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives was formed. History of ID

20 © E. Kowch 2002 Instructional Design 1960s: ISD (Instructional Systems Development) exploded Glaser & Gagne developed “The Conditions of Learning” Different classes of learning objectives were related to appropriate designs for instruction Norm - referenced evaluation came into question Criterion - referenced testing research began Great leaps in academic and performance learning were realized by large institutions The tension between “Media People” and “Developers” began…. Communication theory was the root of the developing ID field Learning Architects Learning Product Builders vs History of ID

21 © E. Kowch 2002 Instructional Design Communications Theory On One Slide Source Message Channel Receiver Feedback History of ID

22 © E. Kowch 2002 Instructional Design The 1970s: ID Models Mature Models proliferated. Goodson (1980) identified over 60 models So far, instructional design was missing something Needs Analysis was added to the collection of steps that define the instruction process Instructional developer roles emerged History of ID

23 © E. Kowch 2002 Instructional Design 1980s: MicroComputers and Performance Technology arrive Computers in instructional design became a focus. Few scholars agreed on their impact and use (Shrock, 1995). Learning theories, human / machine interface studies focussed on SMCR and on the ID process. Drill and practice software emerged The seeds of post behaviorist ID began - Constructivism was an idea that learning outcomes could vary by student / environment interaction History of ID

24 © E. Kowch 2002 Instructional Design 1990s: Computers become communication conduits Instructional Design needed to accommodate communciation, as learners began to be connected globally. Ed Psychology found new learning models (Multiple Intelligences, Emotional Intelligences). The ID field responded with more constructivist thinking about the context of learning. With the internet, Instructional Designers developing Distance Education materials became important - the role became understandable in new ways. What’s next? History of ID

25 © E. Kowch 2002 Instructional Design Agenda for tonight Introductions - getting to know each other Vclass Tips WebCT Tips An overview of the Course The History of Instructional Design The Context of Instructional Design Readings / Tasks for Next Thursday’s Class

26 © E. Kowch 2002 Instructional Design The Context of Instructional Design* Utilization Media Utilization Diffusion of Innovations Implementation & Institutionalization Policies and Regulations Leadership Project Management / Consultation Team Building & Planning Resource Mgt. (Human & $.) Delivery System Mgt. Information Mgt. Design Instructional Systems Design Message Design Instructional Strategies Learner Characteristics Performance Design Development Print Technologies Audiovisual Technologies Computer Based Technologies Integrated Technologies *(Kowch after Fitzgerald, AECT, 2002) Theory You are here Practice ID Context

27 © E. Kowch 2002 Instructional Design Next Week’s Topics (on WebCT) (1) How Minds Learn. (?) Cognitive Education & Cognitive Development Recommended Readings for this next week: Reigeluth Textbook: Cognitive Eduation and the Cognitive Domain by Charles M. Reigeluth & Jule Moore (1999) pages of your text. Discussion Thread Leader for this week (Gene) Topic: The History and Context of Instructional Design  Deliverables for next day (January 23rd) Gene Your ID model Sketch (attached to your named : My ID Sketch) Respond To the Discussion Thread Question before the 23rd. Go over the course outline carefully - a lot of detail on your assignments is there. Find a partner and me with both your names Discussion Thread Roster: Find a partner and me with both your names - identify a week between January 30 and April 17th where you’ll lead the discussion on the topic from the previous week. Check the Course Home Page from WebCT - After January 18th for this copy…. NEXT WEEK

28 © E. Kowch 2002 Instructional Design Adieu from Calgary, until January 23 - When the new material will be available in your WebCT shell - link to the Class Home Page our next Live session is on January 30th, 7 PM Mountain time


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