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Tampa FAASTeam Welcome Tonight’s Presentation Multi vs. Single Engine Flight Similarities and Differences Select Number NR0126694 Select Number NR0126694.

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Presentation on theme: "Tampa FAASTeam Welcome Tonight’s Presentation Multi vs. Single Engine Flight Similarities and Differences Select Number NR0126694 Select Number NR0126694."— Presentation transcript:

1 Tampa FAASTeam Welcome Tonight’s Presentation Multi vs. Single Engine Flight Similarities and Differences Select Number NR0126694 Select Number NR0126694

2 Tampa FAASTeam Welcome Tonight’s Team: Tom Evans David Keyser Dennis Whitley Karen Dunbar

3 Tampa FAASTeam Can Everyone See Me Okay? Can Everyone See Me Okay? Can Everyone Hear Me Okay? Can Everyone Hear Me Okay? Can everyone See The Screen Okay? Can everyone See The Screen Okay? Does Everyone Know Where The Exits Are Does Everyone Know Where The Exits Are Does Everyone Know Where the Facilities are? Does Everyone Know Where the Facilities are?

4 Tampa FAASTeam Please make sure that you have signed in so that we can validate your attendance tonight !!! Please make sure that you have signed in so that we can validate your attendance tonight !!!

5 Tampa FAASTeam Please make sure that you have signed in so that we can validate your attendance tonight !!! Please make sure that you have signed in so that we can validate your attendance tonight !!! Please register on www.FAASafety.gov Please register on www.FAASafety.gov

6 Tampa FAASTeam Please make sure that you have signed in so that we can validate your attendance tonight !!! Please make sure that you have signed in so that we can validate your attendance tonight !!! Please register on www.FAASafety.gov Please register on www.FAASafety.gov Please sign up for events Please sign up for events

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11 Tampa FAASTeam JanuaryRunway Safety JanuaryRunway Safety February AOPA, GPS From The Ground Up February AOPA, GPS From The Ground Up March Airspace-Navigating The DC Airspace March Airspace-Navigating The DC Airspace April Tampa Tower and Tampa Airspace April Tampa Tower and Tampa Airspace May Flight Service, Weather and More May Flight Service, Weather and More June Flight Safety, A Viewpoint From The Pros June Flight Safety, A Viewpoint From The Pros July Light Sport Aircraft, R&R July Light Sport Aircraft, R&R August Multi Vs. Single Engine Safety August Multi Vs. Single Engine Safety SeptemberRoot Cause of Accidents- Human Factors of Flying SeptemberRoot Cause of Accidents- Human Factors of Flying OctoberRunway Incursions – Runway Safety OctoberRunway Incursions – Runway Safety NovemberSimulation – An Economical Way To Stay Current NovemberSimulation – An Economical Way To Stay Current December AOPA, What Went Wrong December AOPA, What Went Wrong

12 Tampa FAASTeam Notes: Peter O. Knight (KTPF) Runway Construction TFR-Orlando / Disney 3 NM / 3000’ and Below October.. 20 thru 22 - NBAA Orlando…High Traffic November..5 thru 7 - AOPA Summit High traffic

13 Multi vs. Single Engine Flight Similarities and Differences Select Number NR0126694

14 Tampa FAASTeam If you have boarded this flight in error, please see the flight attendant ASAP before we push back from the gate !

15 Multi vs. Single Engine Flight Similarities and Differences Similarities Similarities

16 Multi vs. Single Engine Flight Similarities and Differences Similarities Similarities Differences Differences

17 Multi vs. Single Engine Flight Similarities and Differences Similarities Similarities Differences Differences Simplicity Simplicity

18 Multi vs. Single Engine Flight Similarities and Differences Similarities Similarities Differences Differences Simplicity Simplicity Complexity Complexity

19 Multi vs. Single Engine Flight Similarities and Differences Similarities Similarities Differences Differences Simplicity Simplicity Complexity Complexity Aerodynamics Aerodynamics

20 Multi vs. Single Engine Flight Similarities and Differences Similarities Similarities Differences Differences Simplicity Simplicity Complexity Complexity Aerodynamics Aerodynamics Safety Safety

21 Multi vs. Single Engine Flight Personal Safety Standards

22 Multi vs. Single Engine Flight Personal Safety Standards You Never Ever Want To See This

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26 Multi vs. Single Engine Flight Similarities and Differences

27 Multi vs. Single Engine Flight Similarities and Differences Cessna 421…. Cessna 421…. The Pilot, 80 years of age, was in good health, had no aviation violations and had been a pilot since 1985, with 23,000 hours of flight experience. The Pilot, 80 years of age, was in good health, had no aviation violations and had been a pilot since 1985, with 23,000 hours of flight experience.

28 Multi vs. Single Engine Flight Similarities and Differences Cessna 210N… Cessna 210N… The pilot held an Airline Transport Pilot Certificate, with airplane single and multi-engine land and instrument ratings. In addition, he held a Flight Instructor Certificate with single engine and instrument airplane ratings. The pilot held an Airline Transport Pilot Certificate, with airplane single and multi-engine land and instrument ratings. In addition, he held a Flight Instructor Certificate with single engine and instrument airplane ratings.

29 Multi vs. Single Engine Flight Similarities and Differences King Air B200… King Air B200… A fixed-wing single-engine-rated private pilot and passenger, safely landed King Air B200 A fixed-wing single-engine-rated private pilot and passenger, safely landed King Air B200

30 Multi vs. Single Engine Flight Similarities and Differences

31 Multi vs. Single Engine Flight Similarities and Differences Are multi-engine airplanes really safer? Are multi-engine airplanes really safer?

32 Multi vs. Single Engine Flight Similarities and Differences Are multi-engine airplanes really safer? Are multi-engine airplanes really safer? Are single-engine airplanes really safer? Are single-engine airplanes really safer?

33 Multi vs. Single Engine Flight Similarities and Differences Why require an additional rating to fly multi-engine airplanes? Why require an additional rating to fly multi-engine airplanes?

34 Multi vs. Single Engine Flight Similarities and Differences Why require an additional rating to fly multi-engine airplanes? Why require an additional rating to fly multi-engine airplanes? Why require an additional rating to fly single-engine airplanes? Why require an additional rating to fly single-engine airplanes?

35 Multi vs. Single Engine Flight Similarities and Differences Per flying hour a Twin Engine Airplane compared to a Single is: 2 times more likely to develop problems in ANY of its engines; 2 times more likely to develop problems in ANY of its engines; 4 times less likely to develop problems in TWO of its engines. 4 times less likely to develop problems in TWO of its engines.

36 Multi vs. Single Engine Flight Similarities and Differences Approaches Approaches

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45 Multi vs. Single Engine Flight Myths

46 Myths Multi Engine Airplanes are more complex Multi Engine Airplanes are more complex

47 Multi vs. Single Engine Flight Myths If an engine fails in a twin, the remaining engine will only carry you to the scene of the accident quicker. If an engine fails in a twin, the remaining engine will only carry you to the scene of the accident quicker.

48 Multi vs. Single Engine Flight Myths If an engine fails in a twin, shut down the remaining engine and crash land. Better to land right side up, than otherwise. If an engine fails in a twin, shut down the remaining engine and crash land. Better to land right side up, than otherwise.

49 Multi vs. Single Engine Flight Myths Bob just got his Private Pilot License Bob just got his Private Pilot License

50 Multi vs. Single Engine Flight Myths Bob just got his Private Pilot License Bob just got his Private Pilot License Bob just bought a new Bonanza Bob just bought a new Bonanza

51 Multi vs. Single Engine Flight Myths Bob just got his Private Pilot License Bob just got his Private Pilot License Bob just bought a new Bonanza Bob just bought a new Bonanza Bob just bought a Baron Bob just bought a Baron

52 Multi vs. Single Engine Flight Myths Bob just got his Private Pilot License Bob just got his Private Pilot License Bob just bought a new Bonanza Bob just bought a new Bonanza Bob just bought a Baron Bob just bought a Baron Bob is going to kill himself in that thing! Bob is going to kill himself in that thing!

53 Multi vs. Single Engine Flight Facts What Makes us safer ???

54 Multi vs. Single Engine Flight Facts What Makes us safer ??? Training Training

55 Multi vs. Single Engine Flight Facts What Makes us safer ??? Training Training Continuing Education / Re-currency Continuing Education / Re-currency

56 Multi vs. Single Engine Flight Facts What Makes us safer ??? Training Training Continuing Education / Re-currency Continuing Education / Re-currency Additional Rating / Upgrade Additional Rating / Upgrade

57 Multi vs. Single Engine Flight Facts What Makes us safer ??? Training Training Continuing Education / Re-currency Continuing Education / Re-currency Additional Rating / Upgrade Additional Rating / Upgrade Practice Practice

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69 FAR Part 61.31 (e) A Complex Aircraft is one which has manually or automatically controllable pitch propeller, flaps, and retractable landing gear. A Complex Aircraft is one which has manually or automatically controllable pitch propeller, flaps, and retractable landing gear. Note that these aircraft do not have to be over 200 HP. Note that these aircraft do not have to be over 200 HP. To be legal to fly a “Complex Aircraft" under 61.31, you need a sign off by a flight instructor. To be legal to fly a “Complex Aircraft" under 61.31, you need a sign off by a flight instructor.

70 FAR Part 61.31 (f) A High Performance Aircraft is one which has engine of more than 200 horsepower. A High Performance Aircraft is one which has engine of more than 200 horsepower. Note that these aircraft do not have to have retractable gear. Note that these aircraft do not have to have retractable gear. To be legal to fly a “High Performance Aircraft" under 61.31, you need a sign off by a flight instructor. To be legal to fly a “High Performance Aircraft" under 61.31, you need a sign off by a flight instructor.

71 FAR Part 61.31 (g) A Pressurized Aircraft capable of operating at high altitudes. (certificated above 25,000) A Pressurized Aircraft capable of operating at high altitudes. (certificated above 25,000) Note that these aircraft do not have to have retractable gear or more than 200 HP. Note that these aircraft do not have to have retractable gear or more than 200 HP. To be legal to fly a “High Altitude Aircraft" under 61.31, you need a sign off by a flight instructor. To be legal to fly a “High Altitude Aircraft" under 61.31, you need a sign off by a flight instructor.

72 FAR Part 61.31 (a) (a) A person who acts as a pilot in command of any of the following aircraft must hold a type rating for that aircraft: (1) Large aircraft (except lighter-than-air). (1) Large aircraft (except lighter-than-air). (2) Turbojet-powered airplanes. (2) Turbojet-powered airplanes. (3) Other aircraft specified by the Administrator through aircraft type certificate procedures. (3) Other aircraft specified by the Administrator through aircraft type certificate procedures.

73 FAR Part 61… Sec 61.103 - Eligibility Sec 61.103 - Eligibility Sec 61.105 - Aeronautical Knowledge Sec 61.105 - Aeronautical Knowledge Sec 61.107 - Flight Proficiency Sec 61.107 - Flight Proficiency Sec 61.109 - Aeronautical Experience Sec 61.109 - Aeronautical Experience

74 FAR Part 61… Pilots may take their original private pilot or other practical tests in a multi-engine airplane, in which case they will be subject to additional experience requirements. Pilots may take their original private pilot or other practical tests in a multi-engine airplane, in which case they will be subject to additional experience requirements. A pilot certificate obtained in such a manner will not include single engine piloting privileges (ability to deal with a total power loss is not demonstrated during multi engine certification). A pilot certificate obtained in such a manner will not include single engine piloting privileges (ability to deal with a total power loss is not demonstrated during multi engine certification).

75 FAR Part 61… To add a multi engine rating to a private, commercial, ATP, or CFI certificate, the FAA requires an instructor endorsement and a practical test. A Knowledge test (written) is not required. The practical test includes a detailed oral test. To add a multi engine rating to a private, commercial, ATP, or CFI certificate, the FAA requires an instructor endorsement and a practical test. A Knowledge test (written) is not required. The practical test includes a detailed oral test.

76 FAR Part 61… To add a single engine rating to a private, commercial, ATP, or CFI certificate, the FAA requires an instructor endorsement and a practical test. A Knowledge test (written) is not required. The practical test includes a detailed oral test. To add a single engine rating to a private, commercial, ATP, or CFI certificate, the FAA requires an instructor endorsement and a practical test. A Knowledge test (written) is not required. The practical test includes a detailed oral test.

77 FAR Part 61.109 (a) (a) For an airplane single-engine rating. Except as provided in paragraph (i) of this section, a person who applies for a private pilot certificate with an airplane category and single-engine class rating must log at least (a) For an airplane single-engine rating. Except as provided in paragraph (i) of this section, a person who applies for a private pilot certificate with an airplane category and single-engine class rating must log at least 40 hours of flight time that includes at least 20 hours of flight training from an authorized instructor and 10 hours of solo flight training in the areas of operation listed in §61.107 (b) 40 hours of flight time that includes at least 20 hours of flight training from an authorized instructor and 10 hours of solo flight training in the areas of operation listed in §61.107 (b)§61.107§61.107

78 FAR Part 61.109 (b) (b) For an airplane multi-engine rating. Except as provided in paragraph (i) of this section, a person who applies for a private pilot certificate with an airplane category and multi engine class rating must log at least (b) For an airplane multi-engine rating. Except as provided in paragraph (i) of this section, a person who applies for a private pilot certificate with an airplane category and multi engine class rating must log at least 40 hours of flight time that includes at least 20 hours of flight training from an authorized instructor and 10 hours of solo flight training in the areas of operation listed in §61.107 (b) (2) 40 hours of flight time that includes at least 20 hours of flight training from an authorized instructor and 10 hours of solo flight training in the areas of operation listed in §61.107 (b) (2)§61.107

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80 Beech Baron Take Off Distance

81 Beech Baron Accelerate To Stop Distance Beech Baron Accelerate To Stop Distance

82 Accelerate To Stop Distance First Response First Response –3273 and a half feet Sir

83 Accelerate To Stop Distance Best Response Best Response –3273 and a half feet Sir –But that’s with a new airplane and a test pilot –And, if I start stopping exactly when the engine fails. –Besides, it pretty hot today, and my brakes, tires, and brain are old. –We better look at the chart and add a little distance to the 3273 and a half feet!

84 Accelerate To Stop Distance Accelerate To Stop Distance Accelerate-Stop Distance is the runway required to accelerate to either Vr or Vlof (as specified by the manufacturer) and, assuming an engine failure at that instant, to bring the airplane to a complete stop. Accelerate-Stop Distance is the runway required to accelerate to either Vr or Vlof (as specified by the manufacturer) and, assuming an engine failure at that instant, to bring the airplane to a complete stop.

85 Accelerate To Go Distance Accelerate To Go Distance Accelerate-Go Distance is the runway required to accelerate to either Vr or Vlof (as specified by the manufacturer) and, assuming an engine failure at that instant, to continue the takeoff on the remaining engine and climb to a height of 50 feet. Accelerate-Go Distance is the runway required to accelerate to either Vr or Vlof (as specified by the manufacturer) and, assuming an engine failure at that instant, to continue the takeoff on the remaining engine and climb to a height of 50 feet.

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87 Cessna 172 Take Off Distance

88 First Response First Response

89 Cessna 172 Take Off Distance First Response First Response –1125 Feet Sir

90 Cessna 172 Take Off Distance Best Response Best Response –1125 Feet Sir –However, that’s at Standard temperature with a new airplane and a test pilot –Let’s look at the AFM and see what it is today for my airplane –A worst case would be at 5000 ft DA and a temperature of 97 degrees

91 Cessna 172 Accelerate To Stop Distance Cessna 172 Accelerate To Stop Distance

92 Multi Engine Climb Performance The loss of an engine in a multi engine airplane can result in more than 50% of its climb capability. The loss of an engine in a multi engine airplane can result in more than 50% of its climb capability.

93 Multi Engine Climb Performance The loss of an engine in a multi engine airplane can result in loss of more than 50% of its climb capability.The loss of an engine in a multi engine airplane can result in loss of more than 50% of its climb capability. Matter of fact, the loss can be 80% or greater! Matter of fact, the loss can be 80% or greater!

94 Multi Engine Climb Performance When one engine on a twin fails, you typically lose 80% to 90% of your excess thrust.When one engine on a twin fails, you typically lose 80% to 90% of your excess thrust. Which means that if you were climbing at 1200 fpm with both engines, if you configure and fly the aircraft perfectly after an engine failure, you will likely see around 200 fpm, which is pretty bad. !Which means that if you were climbing at 1200 fpm with both engines, if you configure and fly the aircraft perfectly after an engine failure, you will likely see around 200 fpm, which is pretty bad. !

95 Multi Engine Climb Performance AircraftME roc SE rocLoss AircraftME roc SE rocLoss Seminole1,340 212 82.78 Seminole1,340 212 82.78 Navajo 1,390 23083.45 Navajo 1,390 23083.45 Aztec 1,490 240 83.89 Aztec 1,490 240 83.89 Cessna 3101,495 327 78.13 Cessna 3101,495 327 78.13 Beech Baron 1,694 382 80.70 Beech Baron 1,694 382 80.70 Cessna 4211,850 305 83.51 Cessna 4211,850 305 83.51 Cheyenne ll1,75047073.15 Cheyenne ll1,75047073.15 King Air 2002,46074070.00 King Air 2002,46074070.00 Citation CJ13,29090672.50 Citation CJ13,29090672.50

96 Cessna 421 AircraftME roc SE rocLoss AircraftME roc SE rocLoss Cessna 4211,850 305 83.51 Cessna 4211,850 305 83.51 Empty Weight4700 Empty Weight4700 75 Gallons 45075 gal (Max 262 gal) 75 Gallons 45075 gal (Max 262 gal) Pilot 200 Pilot 200 TO Weight5350 TO Weight5350 GTOW6480 GTOW6480 Under1130 ** Under1130 **

97 Cessna 421 Flight experience of 23,000 hours. 5,000 hours of flight experience in the accident airplane,

98 Cessna 421 Flight experience of 23,000 hours. 5,000 hours of flight experience in the accident airplane, Witnesses reported pilot ran the engines to full power for about 20 minutes prior to departure. The pilot appeared to be troubleshooting an engine issue.

99 Cessna 421 Witnesses near the accident site observed the airplane in a shallow climb from runway 8, flying low, with the right engine on fire. Some of the witnesses reported that the flames were yellow in color and no smoke was observed. The airplane then banked right and descended into a residential area.

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106 P – Factor Overhead View

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115 VMC – Minimum Controllable Airspeed Calibrated Airspeed at which it is possible to control the aircraft when the critical engine becomes inoperative. Calibrated Airspeed at which it is possible to control the aircraft when the critical engine becomes inoperative.

116 VMC – Minimum Controllable Airspeed Max Gross Weight Max Gross Weight Most AFT CG Most AFT CG Max Power on operating engine Max Power on operating engine Less than 5 degrees of bank Less than 5 degrees of bank Flaps In take off position Flaps In take off position Gear up Gear up

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124 VMC Considerations Performance Performance –Gear Up –Flaps Up –Aft CG –Altitude Stability Stability –Gear Down –Flaps Down –Fwd CG –Altitude

125 V Speeds Vso Stall Speed (clean)(Green Arc) Vso Stall Speed (clean)(Green Arc) Vs1 Stall (Spec. Config)(White Arc) Vs1 Stall (Spec. Config)(White Arc) Vmc Min Control Speed (Red Line) Vmc Min Control Speed (Red Line) Vne Max Speed(Red Line) Vne Max Speed(Red Line) Vx-Vxse Best Angle (Multi) Vx-Vxse Best Angle (Multi) Vy-Vyse Best Rate (Multi) (Blue Line) Vy-Vyse Best Rate (Multi) (Blue Line) Vref Approach Speed (1.3 Vso) Vref Approach Speed (1.3 Vso)

126 V Speeds V1 Decision Speed(Red Line) V1 Decision Speed(Red Line) VR Rotation Speed(>V1 V1 { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/14/4187133/slides/slide_126.jpg", "name": "V Speeds V1 Decision Speed(Red Line) V1 Decision Speed(Red Line) VR Rotation Speed(>V1 V1 V1 V1

127 V Speeds (Call Outs) SELMEL SELMEL Airspeed AliveBothBoth Airspeed AliveBothBoth V1 >Vs or Vs1Red Line V1 >Vs or Vs1Red Line VR>Vs Red Line Vs Red Line { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/14/4187133/slides/slide_127.jpg", "name": "V Speeds (Call Outs) SELMEL SELMEL Airspeed AliveBothBoth Airspeed AliveBothBoth V1 >Vs or Vs1Red Line V1 >Vs or Vs1Red Line VR>Vs Red Line Vs Red Line Vs or Vs1Red Line V1 >Vs or Vs1Red Line VR>Vs Red Line Vs Red Line

128 Engine Failure After Take Off Airspeed Maintain Vyse Airspeed Maintain Vyse Mixtures Rich Mixtures Rich Props High RPM Props High RPM Throttles Full Power Throttles Full Power Flaps Retracted Flaps Retracted Gear Retracted Gear Retracted Identify Which engine failed? Identify Which engine failed? Verify Close inop. engine throttle Verify Close inop. engine throttle FeatherFeather Inop engine prop FeatherFeather Inop engine prop

129 Engine Failure After Take Off Which Engine Failed? Which Engine Failed? Which Engine has not Failed? Which Engine has not Failed?

130 Engine Failure After Take Off Manifold Pressure Manifold Pressure RPM RPM Oil Pressure Oil Pressure Fuel Flow Fuel Flow Warning Light Warning Light

131 Engine Failure After Take Off Working Foot – Working Engine Working Foot – Working Engine Dead Foot – Dead Engine Dead Foot – Dead Engine Ball Moves towards Good Engine Ball Moves towards Good Engine Ball Moves away from the Dead Engine Ball Moves away from the Dead Engine Step on the Ball Step on the Ball

132 Engine Failure After Take Off Failed Engine Failed Engine Ball is a good indicator Ball is a good indicator

133 Engine Failure After Take Off Failing Engine Failing Engine Ball is not a good indicator Ball is not a good indicator Ball will be moving left and right Ball will be moving left and right

134 Engine Failure After Take Off IDENTIFY !!! IDENTIFY !!! VERIFY !!! VERIFY !!! FEATHER !!! FEATHER !!!

135 Engine Failure After Take Off DACH-6 Airspeed 80 Knots Airspeed 80 Knots Throttles MAX Power Throttles MAX Power Flaps10 degrees Flaps10 degrees 1500 ft.Check List 1500 ft.Check List

136 Engine Failure After Take Off Citation Maintain Directional Control Maintain Directional Control No action until 400 ft No action until 400 ft Memory Items only Memory Items only 1500 ftChecklist 1500 ftChecklist

137 Engine Failure After Take Off Single SpeedBest Glide Speed SpeedBest Glide Speed Action Land Action Land

138 Cruise Flight

139 Know Your Airplane Know Your Airplane Be familiar with Be familiar with Single Engine Service Ceiling Single Engine Service Ceiling Single Engine Absolute Ceiling

140 Cruise Flight The single engine service ceiling is the altitude at which twins can no longer climb at 50 feet per minute in smooth air, with one engine feathered, at maximum certificated takeoff weight. The single engine service ceiling is the altitude at which twins can no longer climb at 50 feet per minute in smooth air, with one engine feathered, at maximum certificated takeoff weight. The single engine absolute ceiling is where the rate of climb is zero. The single engine absolute ceiling is where the rate of climb is zero.

141 Cruise Flight VMC at altitude VMC at altitude –Lower VMC at higher altitude –Lower VMC with lower power

142 Cruise Flight Fuel Considerations Fuel Needed Fuel Needed Fuel Available Fuel Available Fuel Available under certain failures Fuel Available under certain failures

143 Cruise Flight Piper Seminole Piper Seminole Service Ceiling15000 ft Service Ceiling15000 ft Service Ceiling SE3800 ft Service Ceiling SE3800 ft Stall Speed55 KIAS Stall Speed55 KIAS VMC56 KIAS VMC56 KIAS Yyse88 KIAS Yyse88 KIAS

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146 Notify ATC or CTAF Notify ATC or CTAF Plan for Instrument Approach Plan for Instrument Approach Straight In Final Approach Straight In Final Approach Go Around Early and High Go Around Early and High

147 Multi vs. Single Engine Flight Bottom Line SEL / MEL

148 Multi vs. Single Engine Flight Bottom Line SEL / MEL Know your airplane Know your airplane

149 Multi vs. Single Engine Flight Bottom Line SEL / MEL Know your airplane Know your airplane Know your airplane’s limitations Know your airplane’s limitations

150 Multi vs. Single Engine Flight Bottom Line SEL / MEL Know your airplane Know your airplane Know your airplane’s limitations Know your airplane’s limitations Know your limitations Know your limitations

151 Multi vs. Single Engine Flight Bottom Line SEL / MEL Know your airplane Know your airplane Know your airplane’s limitations Know your airplane’s limitations Know your limitations Know your limitations Practice - Practice - Practice Practice - Practice - Practice

152 Multi vs. Single Engine Flight Proficiency Proficiency –Incompletely trained or rusty pilots can fly multi engine airplanes, but not safely. In normal operations they would be at least twice safer flying a single engine airplane. –This is due to the higher probability of any of the engines failing in a multi and the consequences of not being prepared to handle those cases.

153 Multi vs. Single Engine Flight Proficiency Proficiency –Incompletely trained or rusty pilots can fly single engine airplanes, but not safely. In normal operations they would be at least twice safer flying a multi engine airplane. –This is due to the higher probability of an engine failing in a single and the consequences of not being prepared to handle those cases.

154 Thank You Thank you for coming this evening Thank you for coming this evening Thank you for your participation Thank you for your participation FLY SAFELY !!!

155 Next Meeting 2 nd Tuesday of The Month Tuesday September 8 th 2009 Tuesday September 8 th 2009 Round Table Forum Root Causes of Accidents: Psychological factors of flying


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