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United States Masters Swimming The Future is Now! Jim Miller, MD, President, USMS Fellow AAFP, CAQ Sports Medicine.

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Presentation on theme: "United States Masters Swimming The Future is Now! Jim Miller, MD, President, USMS Fellow AAFP, CAQ Sports Medicine."— Presentation transcript:

1 United States Masters Swimming The Future is Now! Jim Miller, MD, President, USMS Fellow AAFP, CAQ Sports Medicine

2 Objectives Identify the population of masters athletes Identify the population of masters athletes Identify those parts of physiology that are ‘fixed’ Vs those that are ‘plastic’. Identify those parts of physiology that are ‘fixed’ Vs those that are ‘plastic’. Identify the new research as it applies to conditioning and aging Identify the new research as it applies to conditioning and aging Why is USMS a model for success in treating aging? Why is USMS a model for success in treating aging?

3 Demographics: How bad is it? Fact: In Western society the number of people over 65 is growing faster in both size and proportion to all other age groups (excepting the over 85 age group)! Fact: In Western society the number of people over 65 is growing faster in both size and proportion to all other age groups (excepting the over 85 age group)! Estimate: By 2030 those over 65 will account for 70 million of the population in the US. Estimate: By 2030 those over 65 will account for 70 million of the population in the US.

4 Masters Swimming – What is it? 43,000 members 43,000 members Registered 18 and over Registered 18 and over Oldest competitive age group is 100-104 Oldest competitive age group is 100-104 Full complement of events and courses SCY, SCM, LCM, Open Water Full complement of events and courses SCY, SCM, LCM, Open Water Coached workouts with stroke clinics and full utilization of the ‘science of swimming’ Coached workouts with stroke clinics and full utilization of the ‘science of swimming’

5 Aging – Fixed? (relatively inflexible changes) Cardiac Decrease in maximal heart rate (6-10 bpm per decade) Decrease in maximal heart rate (6-10 bpm per decade) Decrease in cardiac output Decrease in cardiac output Decrease in LV contractility Decrease in LV contractility Decrease in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) Decrease in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) Increase in both systolic and diastolic secondary to the increase in TPR Increase in both systolic and diastolic secondary to the increase in TPR

6 Aging – Fixed? Pulmonary Decrease in vital capacity Decrease in vital capacity Increase in residual volume Increase in residual volume Increase in respiratory rate Increase in respiratory rate Increase in the work of breathing against an increasingly rigid rib cage and lung tissue with less elasticity Increase in the work of breathing against an increasingly rigid rib cage and lung tissue with less elasticity

7 Aging – Fixed? Musculoskeletal Decrease in muscle mass (sarcopenia - more pronounced in women) Decrease in muscle mass (sarcopenia - more pronounced in women) 50% decline in the normal population between ages 20 to 90 50% decline in the normal population between ages 20 to 90 Decline in type I and type II muscle fibers with a proportionately increased loss of type II to type I fibers Decline in type I and type II muscle fibers with a proportionately increased loss of type II to type I fibers After age 30 a decline in the density of muscle fibers and an increase in fat within the muscle After age 30 a decline in the density of muscle fibers and an increase in fat within the muscle

8 Musculoskeletal (continued) Decrease in bone mass Decrease in bone mass Decrease tensile strength of tendons and ligaments Decrease tensile strength of tendons and ligaments Decrease in mucopolysaccharides and increase in water content of articular cartilage, resulting in cartilage weakness Decrease in mucopolysaccharides and increase in water content of articular cartilage, resulting in cartilage weakness

9 Aging – Fixed? Neurological Decrease in spinal motor neurons (leading to the decrease in strength) Decrease in spinal motor neurons (leading to the decrease in strength) Decrease in proprioception (contributes to decline in balance, righting reflexes, and coordination) Decrease in proprioception (contributes to decline in balance, righting reflexes, and coordination) Decrease in reaction times Decrease in reaction times

10 Aging – Fixed? Hematological and Metabolic Decrease in plasma volume, RBC mass, and blood volume Decrease in plasma volume, RBC mass, and blood volume Decrease in metabolic rate Decrease in metabolic rate Decrease in glucose tolerance Decrease in glucose tolerance Increase in triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol Increase in triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol

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12 Aging – Exercise Benefits Cardiovascular Decrease the decline from 1% per year to 1% per decade! Decrease the decline from 1% per year to 1% per decade! Aerobic training has the same benefit with older athletes as their younger counterparts offering the potential for a 10-30% improvement in the V02 max. Aerobic training has the same benefit with older athletes as their younger counterparts offering the potential for a 10-30% improvement in the V02 max.

13 Cardiovascular (continued) VO2 max. decline in a trained man at 70 is minimized and the rate of decline from that point forward resembles a sedentary younger adult VO2 max. decline in a trained man at 70 is minimized and the rate of decline from that point forward resembles a sedentary younger adult Improved blood glucose, cholesterol (total and HDL) Improved blood glucose, cholesterol (total and HDL) Improved arterial elasticity contributing to a lower systolic and diastolic BP Improved arterial elasticity contributing to a lower systolic and diastolic BP Lower heart rate at rest and sub maximum exercise as in younger athletes Lower heart rate at rest and sub maximum exercise as in younger athletes

14 Cardiovascular (continued) Decrease in anginal threshold Decrease in anginal threshold 1-4% loss in body fat particularly intraabdominal fat 1-4% loss in body fat particularly intraabdominal fat Improved red cell mass, plasma, and blood volume Improved red cell mass, plasma, and blood volume

15 Aging – Exercise Benefits Musculoskeletal system Maintenance or retrieval of the Type 2 muscle fibers Maintenance or retrieval of the Type 2 muscle fibers Improvement in the mitochondrial density Improvement in the mitochondrial density Improvement in the oxygen extraction capacity Improvement in the oxygen extraction capacity

16 Musculoskeletal Benefits (continued) Improved strength, endurance, balance (postural stability), coordination Improved strength, endurance, balance (postural stability), coordination Improved flexibility if built into the program Improved flexibility if built into the program

17 Musculoskeletal Benefits (continued) Decline in falls Decline in falls Decline in fractures Decline in fractures Stabilization of joints and support of arthritic joints (4:1 impact absorption muscle to bone) Stabilization of joints and support of arthritic joints (4:1 impact absorption muscle to bone) Performance benefits Performance benefits

18 Aging – Exercise Benefits Metabolic Lessening of losses of muscle results in an increase in fat-free mass, thus an enhanced BMR Lessening of losses of muscle results in an increase in fat-free mass, thus an enhanced BMR Improved glucose tolerance Improved glucose tolerance

19 Aging – Exercise Benefits Neurological and Psychological Reinforcement of healthy lifestyle Reinforcement of healthy lifestyle Enhanced sense of well being and self- image Enhanced sense of well being and self- image Decreased incidence of anxiety and depressive disorders Decreased incidence of anxiety and depressive disorders

20 Neurological and Psychological (continued) Delayed functional disability Delayed functional disability Improved cognition Improved cognition Decline in the incidence of Alzheimer’s disease by greater than 50% Decline in the incidence of Alzheimer’s disease by greater than 50%

21 Neurological and Psychological (continued) Improved sleep patterns Improved sleep patterns Improved appearance Improved appearance Enhanced opportunities for social interactions Enhanced opportunities for social interactions

22 Masters Aquatic Sports Emphasis upon aerobic and anaerobic training Emphasis upon aerobic and anaerobic training Upper and lower body training Upper and lower body training Minimal risk of injury during the pursuit of training Minimal risk of injury during the pursuit of training Heavy emphasis upon social aspects Heavy emphasis upon social aspects

23 Masters Aquatic Sports (continued) Supervised programming for all ages and abilities Supervised programming for all ages and abilities Core objectives of service, education, and growth Core objectives of service, education, and growth Competitive opportunities in all courses and open water Competitive opportunities in all courses and open water

24 USMS Mission Statement “To promote fitness and health in adults by offering and supporting Master’s swimming programs.”

25 USMS Goals and Objectives 1. To encourage and promote improved physical fitness and health in adults. 2. To offer adults the opportunity to participate in a lifelong fitness and/or competitive swimming program. 3. To encourage organizations and communities to establish and sponsor Masters swimming programs.

26 USMS Goals and Objectives (continued) 4. To enhance fellowship and camaraderie among Masters swimmers. 5. To stimulate research in the sociology, psychology, and physiology of Masters athletes.

27 USA Masters Aquatic Sports USMS - 43,000 members USMS - 43,000 members Water polo – 800 members Water polo – 800 members Synchronized swimming – 750 members Synchronized swimming – 750 members Diving – 250 members Diving – 250 members

28 Demographics – USMS (by age group) 18-24 – 5.7% 18-24 – 5.7% 25-29 – 9.7% 25-29 – 9.7% 30-34 – 12.3% 30-34 – 12.3% 35-39 – 14% 35-39 – 14% 40-44 – 16% 40-44 – 16% 45-49 – 15% 45-49 – 15% 50-54 – 10% 50-54 – 10% 55-59 – 6.7% 55-59 – 6.7% 60-64 – 4% 60-64 – 4% 65-69 – 2.3% 65-69 – 2.3% 70-74 – 1.7% 70-74 – 1.7% 75-79 – 1.1% 75-79 – 1.1% 80-84 – 0.6% 80-84 – 0.6% 85 plus – 0.3% 85 plus – 0.3%

29 The Future is Now! The earlier the process of aging is challenged the more positive the result and quality of life. The earlier the process of aging is challenged the more positive the result and quality of life. Opportunity exists at the younger age ranges establishing a pattern of behavior that embraces exercise as a routine part of daily life. Opportunity exists at the younger age ranges establishing a pattern of behavior that embraces exercise as a routine part of daily life.

30 The Future is Now!! Fitness is at the core of the message from a personal and societal standpoint. Fitness is at the core of the message from a personal and societal standpoint. Competition is a means of goal setting for some. Competition is a means of goal setting for some.

31 The Future is Now!!!! “Swimming for Life”

32 The Future is Now!!! Thank you for your attention! Questions?

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34 Bibliography Anderson L.B.,Schnohr P, et a;. ‘All-cause mortality associated with physical activity during leisure time, work, sports, and cycling to work’ Archives Internal Med. 200;160;1621-1628 Archives Internal Med. 200;160;1621-1628 Evans WJ.’Exercise training guidelines for the elderly.’ Med. Sci. Sports Exerc.1999:31(1):12-17 Med. Sci. Sports Exerc.1999:31(1):12-17 Manson JE. Greenland P, LaCroix AZ, et al. ‘Walking compared with vigorous exercise for the prevention of cardiovascular events in women.’ NEJM.2002; 347:716-725 NEJM.2002; 347:716-725 Neil R,Franklin B. ‘Promoting and Prescribing Exercise for the Elderly.’ Am Fam Physician 2002;65(3);419-428 Am Fam Physician 2002;65(3);419-428 ‘Exercise and Older Patients: Guidelines for the clinician’ J Am Geriatric Soc. 2000;48(3):318-324 J Am Geriatric Soc. 2000;48(3):318-324

35 Bibliography Team Physician Handbook 3 rd edition 2002, Hanley and Belfus, Inc.,Mellion, Walsh, Madden, Putukian, Shelton ACSM’s Esentials of Sports Medicine, Mosby Press, Sallis and Massimino Clinics in Sports Medicine; ‘Injuries and Considerations in Masters Aquatics Sports’, JW Miller;18:2;1999:413-426 2004 USMS Rule Book


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