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July 25,20021 Microbiology Risk Assessment in China: Current Situation & Challenges Xiumei Liu Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety China CDC.

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Presentation on theme: "July 25,20021 Microbiology Risk Assessment in China: Current Situation & Challenges Xiumei Liu Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety China CDC."— Presentation transcript:


2 July 25,20021 Microbiology Risk Assessment in China: Current Situation & Challenges Xiumei Liu Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety China CDC

3 July 25,20022 Risk Analysis

4 July 25,20023 RAA scientifically based process RMThe process of weighing policy alternatives, distinct from risk assessment

5 July 25,20024 MRA in the Word Foodborne bacteria Risk AssessmentFAO/WHO ( JEMRA ) Risk ManagementCodex ( CCFH ) Mycotoxins, metabolites of fungi Risk AssessmentFAO/WHO ( JECFA ) Risk ManagementCodex ( CCFAC )

6 July 25,20025 China Activities in MRA CCFH Since 32 nd 1999 JEMRA Since 2000, Food hazard, EA, QMRA CCFAC Over 10 years, 32 nd 2000 in Beijing JECFA Expert and data contribution (AF, Fumonisin, DSP)

7 July 25,20026 Why MRA is needed in China ? WTO CODEX / GB FOOD INDUSTRY FOOD SAFETY CONTROL Government Consumers HEALTH PROTECTION Life quality knowledge

8 July 25,20027 Risk Assessment Hazard Identification Hazard Characterization Exposure Assessment Risk Characterization

9 July 25,20028 Hazards in Food Foodborne bacteria Fungi and mycotoxins Viruses and parasites Toxic plants and animals Potential environmental toxicants

10 July 25,20029 Foodborne bacteria in China PathogensMortality (%) Salmonella0.1 Bacillus cereus0.037 Burkholderia cocovenenans40 Proteus 0.03 Staphylococcus aureus0.045 Clostridium botulinum7.3 Escherichia coli0.1 Vibrio parahaemolyticus0.01 ( )

11 July 25, Case 1 Case 1 BA Food Poisoning Control 1933Indonesia:Fermented coconut food poisoning 1960Pseudomonas cocovenenans Bongkrekic acid 1950’s China: Unknown causes fermented corn flour poisoning 1979Flavobacterium farinofermentans nov. sp 1984 China: Deteriorated tremella poisoning, 1987P. cocovenenans subsp. farinofermentans 1995Burkholderia cocovenenans (B. gladiali)

12 July 25, Bongkrekic acid Food Poisoning Caused by Various Food in China Food Provinces Outbreaks Patients Fatal Mortality cases (%) _______________________________________________________________ Cereal products Deteriorated tremella Potato product Total _______________________________________________________________ ( )

13 July 25, Hazard identification: Bongkrekic acid, BA Molecular formula C28H38O7 LD mg/kg Target Organs Liver Brain Kidney

14 July 25, Studies on the last 15 years Identification and examination of the foodnorne pathogen Identification analysis and detoxication of BA Diagnosis, monitor and prevention of food poisoning

15 July 25, Risk Manegement in China GB/T Examination of P. cocovenenans subsp. Farinofermentans GB Hygienic Standard of Tremella (BA Detection method) GB WT/12-96 Diagnostic Criteria and Principle of Management for P. Cocovenenans subsp. farinofermentans Food Poisoning

16 July 25, BA poisoning control Outbreaks of BA reduced about 80% in 1990 ’ s.

17 July 25, Prevalence in fly feces Prevalence Fig Distribution for E.coli prevalence in fly feces —— Beta(235, ) Mean: 11.9% 5 th -95 th : 10.7%-13.1%

18 July 25, Number of houseflies Month Average flies density ( no. of flies/cage · day ) Mar 21 Apr 63 May 125 June 221 July 314 Aug 341 Sep 257

19 July 25, No. of ingested bacteria Mean: 310 cfu/meal 5 th -95 th : 23 ~ 875cfu/meal

20 July 25, Exposure probability Mean: 63.5% 5 th -95 th : 59.5% ~ 67.4%

21 July 25, Natural toxicants -- Actual and potential effects in humans Acute effects liver illness, poisoning, death Aflatoxin, DON, 3-NPA, Ergot Microcystin, Saxitoxins, Domoic acid, Solanine Chronic effects Carcinogenic, genotoxic & endemic illness Aflatoxins, Fumonisins, Deoxynivalenol, Zearalenone, Ochratoxin A, Patulin, T-2 toxin, Moniliformine, Sterigmatocystin Microcystin, Domoic acid, Cyanogenic glycosides

22 July 25, Example: Aflatoxin B 1 Animal toxicity data showed: it could cause primary liver cancer in most species studied Epidemiological studies found an association between consumption of food contaminated with aflatoxin B 1 and liver cancer Is a genotoxic carcinogen

23 July 25, Quantitative risk assessment at 49 th JECFA Meeting HBsAg ( + ) :0.3 liver cancer/year/100,000/ ng AF/ kg bw/day HBsAg ( - ) :0.01 liver cancer /year /100,000 / ng AF/kg bw/day

24 July 25, HBsAg( + ) 1%; European Cont. level & Dietary Pattern AFB1 intake Risk (ng/day) (Cancer/year/100,000) AFB1 limit 20 µ g/kg ( ) AFB1 limit 10 µ g/kg ( ) 2 cancers/year/billion

25 July 25, China cont. level and far east dietary pattern AFB1 intake Risk (ng/day) (Cancer/year/100,000) AF limit 20 µ g/kg ( ) AF limit 10 µ g/kg ( ) 300 cancers/year/billion *The mortality of liver cancer was 20/100,000 in the period of (20.03/100,000)

26 July 25, Case 2 The Control of the Deteriorated Sugarcane Food Poisoning in China  Fresh sugarcane grown in southern area of China  Usually shipped to northern parts of China, stored and sold through the winter season  Contaminated sugarcane can cause fatal food poisoning when sold in the next spring

27 July 25, Sugarcane poisoning  The first outbreak of sugarcane poisoning with unknown causes occurred in Henan Province in 1972  From 1972 to 1989: No. of outbreak: 217 No. of cases: 884 No. of deaths: 88 Average fatality: 10%  Identified as a priority to assess and control

28 July 25, Characteristics of 34 MSP Cases Age: 3 to 27 years old Incubation period:10 minutes to 8 hours Manifestations:Vomiting Dystonia Stare on one side Convulsion Carpopedal spasm Coma Electroencephalogram Sequelae

29 July 25, Etiology and risk assessment  Etiology: the Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine studied on the etiology of this specific food poisoning since 1984 and found:  Arthrinium spp. was the pathogenic fungus;  3-nitropropionic acid (3-NPA) produced by A. spp. was proved to be the causative compound  Assessment was made according to case-based studies, epidemiological and laboratory studies

30 July 25, Decision making and management activities  Based on discovery and assessment, MOH promulgated:  Diagnostic criteria and principles for the management of deteriorated sugarcane poisoning (WS/T );  Methods for the isolation and identification of Arthrinium strains and analyzing 3-nitropropionic acid (GB )  At the same time, MOH issued a notification on the prevention and control of DSP to all provinces of China  A national health campaign for prevention and control of the poisoning was launched

31 July 25, Prevention and control measures  The main measures adopted by local health inspectors:  Fresh sugarcane shipped to northern China should not be stored for more than 3 weeks  The deteriorated sugarcane with unpleasant smell and mold growing should not be sold in market  When poisoning outbreak occurred, the suspected left-over sugarcane should be immediately sealed and destroyed  During the outbreak, food inspectors and clinical doctors should work closely to identify and treat patients

32 July 25, Good results  As a result of these efforts, sugarcane poisoning has been satisfactory controlled  No typical cases were reported in China in the last 10 years!

33 July 25, Challenges: Areas for Strengthening Knowledge Team ( National level ) Practice ( Data, Modeling ) Food consumption / dietary intake Effects of processing QMRA (Quantitative method) Analytical methods Sampling protocols

34 July 25, FAO/WHO Activates in China Workshop on Microbiological Risk Assessment Sponsored by FAO/ ILSI /WHO/ MOH May 10-11, 2002 Beijing Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment Training Course (David Vose) Sponsored by WHO/INFS May 13-24, 2002 Beijing

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