2In this chapter you will learn following things. Human Joints and their functions.Human Skeleton and about various parts of it .Gait of other animals.
3Sit still and observe the motion of your body. Notice something? There are so many motions in your body--Blinking of eyesMovement of hands while writing in your notebook.Let us see how animals move from place to place……
4Activity 1: let us fill the below table Table 8.1: How do animals move from place to place?AnimalBody part used while movingHow does the animal move?CowLegsWalkHumanSnakeBirdInsectFish
58.1. Human Body and Its Movements Do you enjoy doing physical exercises in schools? Can you guess which part of body moves during running, walking, laughing , writing, shaking hands?Activity 2: move the various parts of your body and record their movements in Table 8.2. First one is done for you.
6Table 8.2. Movements in your body. Body PartsRotates completelyRotates partiallyBendsLiftsDoes not move at allNeckyesWristFingerKneeAnkleToeBackHeadElbowArm
7Elbow Now see few body movements below and try it yourself…. Notice elbow movement while throwing cock…Elbow
8Noticed movement of elbow while- Shaking handsWaving hands..
10Here you can see various body movements Neck.Here you can see various body movementsShoulder and elbowknees
11From above pictures you must have noticed that we are to bend or rotate our body in places where two parts of our body seem to be joined together — like elbow, shoulder or neck?These places are called joints.There are different types of joints in our body to help us carry out different movements and activities. Let us learn about some of them.
128.1.1. Ball and Socket Joints: CavityBall and Socket Joints:In this joint the rounded end of one bone fits into the cavity(hollow space) of the other bone.Ball like bonego toSuch joints allow movements in all direction and are found in Shoulder and Hip region.For futher information click this link
13Pivotal joint:The joint where our neck joins the head is a pivotal joint.It allows us to bend our head forward and backward andturn the head to our right or left.In a pivotal joint a cylindrical bone rotates in a ring.It is also called gliding joint. This joint is also present in your ankles and wristswhich helps in twisting and waving of hands.go to
148.1.3.Hinge joints:The elbow has a hinge joint that allows only a back and forthMovement.The joints in finger , knees and toes are also Hinge joints.It works like hinges of door moving back and forth.go to
15See this virtual class of human joints ,you will understand more clearly… Click here
16Fixed Joints:Some bones in our head that are joined together at some joints. The bonescannot move at these joints. Such joints are called Fixed joints.There is a fixed joint between the upper jaw and rest of the head.
178.2. Human SkeletonSkeleton system protects your internal organs and support your body as you stand, sit, walk, and run.
18Human skullSkull encloses and protects a very important part of the body, the brain and is made of many bones.At birth, the human skull is made up of 44 separate bony elements. As growth occurs, many of these bony elements gradually fuse together into solid
19Human Rib Cage:The rib cage, also known as the thoracic cage, is a bony and cartilaginous structure which surrounds the thoracic cavity and supports the pectoral girdle, forming a core portion of the human skeleton.The human rib cage is a component of the human respiratory system.It encloses the thoracic cavity, which contains the lungs .Your heart is present between lungs.
20Arm bones:The arm is attached to shoulder through a triangular bone called Scapula.The arm is made up of three bones-Radius, Ulna and Humerus.The carpus (called wrist) is made up of 8 small bones ,which makes hands flexible to move.Each finger of your hand has 3 bones ,except thumb it has 2 bones.
21So what is the grand total of arm bones present in body? Answer… 54BRAIN TEASER
228.2.4. Human spine / backbone: The human spine is a flexible chain of 33 bones. The spine’s S-shaped curve supports the weight of the head, keeping it in an upright position.
238.2.5. Hip bones/ Pelvic bones: They enclose the portion of your bodybelow the stomach.Your pelvis is made up of the two large hip bones in front, and behind -the sacrum and the coccyx.It protects parts of Digestive system, Respiratory system and Urinary sytem.
24There are 206 bones found in our body. Do you know?The smallest bone found in the human body is located in the middle ear. The staples bone is only 2.8 millimetres long.There are 206 bones found in our body.The funny bone is not actually a bone, it’s the Ulnar nerve running inside the elbow.Your thigh bone is stronger than concrete.Some funny skeleton games :Labelling gameQuiz
25Cartilage is also found in the joint of the body.. Additional parts of skeleton which are not as hard as bones and can be bend.Upper part ofear has cartilageThe Ear lobe.Cartilage is also found in the joint of the body..
268.3.Gait of Animals: 8.3.1. Earthworm Earthworms move easily on hard and slippery surfaces.Body of earthworm is made up of many rings.Earthworm have tiny hair like “Bristles” ,which help them to grab the soil.earthworm does not have bones, It has muscles which help them to shorten and extend the body.The body secretes a slimy substance,which help the body to move.This activity of an earthworm makes,the soil fertile.
27SnailSnail have a rounded structure on its back called “Shell” , It’s the outer skeleton and is made up of calcium carbonate.Shell protects the soft body of snail.The strong muscular foot below the shell can protrude.The under surface of the muscular foot is lubricated with mucusSnail walks in a wavy motion.
28Do you know??The mucus also protects the snail from getting injured. That is why snails can walk over sharp objects like blades without getting hurt.
29Cockroach:The cockroach has three pairs of legs that help it to walk, and two pairs of wings that help it to fly.The body is covered with a hard outer skeleton,which help in their movements.The muscle near the legs help them in walking and muscles near the breast move the wings.Click here to see their crawling movements.
308.3.4.Birds:Birds fly in the air , walk on the ground.Some birds like ducks and swans also swim in water.Birds have hollow and light body ,which helps them to fly.The bones of hind limbs are for walking and perching and the forelimbs are modified as wings.A bird's breastbone, or sternum, is shaped like a keel to attach the powerful wing muscles.
31Fish:Fishes have streamlined body, the head and tail portion is smaller then middle portion. Thus they can easily swim in water.The tail moves from side to side, and helps the fish swim in the right direction.Some fish, move by bending their bodies from one side to another in quick succession, which produces a thrust that helps it to move forward.Click here
328.3.6. Snake: Snakes move in S-shaped loops and in a zigzag manner. They cannot move in a straight line.Snakes have a long back bone and many interconnected muscles that help them to slither.They have muscles connecting the backbone, ribs and skin.Snakes move in grass, sand and water.Snakes do not have arms or legs, but even then, they can climb trees.
338.4.Glossary:Thoracic cage: the bony framework that surrounds the organs and soft tissues of the chest.2. Thoracic cavity: the cavity in the vertebrate body enclosed by the ribs between the diaphragm and the neck and containing the lungs and heart.Respiratory system: It is the anatomical system of an organism that introduces respiratory gases to the interior and performs gas exchange.Lungs: It is the essential respiration organ in many air-breathing animals.Digestive System: The food intake is broken down into smaller chemicals forbody utilization. This whole process is called digestion. Some of the organs involved in digestion are the mouth,esophagus , stomach, small and large intestines, gallbladder, pancreas and liver. This organs are collectively termed as Digestive system.
34Urinary System: The urinary system (also called the excretorysystem) is the organ system that produces, stores, and eliminates urine. In humans it includes two kidneys, two ureters, the bladder andthe urethrlnara.Protrude : To project or thrust outward.Thrust: to put (as an unwilling person) forcibly into a course of action .Streamlined: The lines over the body of organism designed or arranged to offer the least resistance to fluid flow.
35A quick reviewThe bone joints are of various kinds depending on the nature of jointsand direction of movement they allow---The Ball and Socket joint. b. The pivotal joint. c. The hinge joint..d. Fixed jointsThe bones are moved by alternate contractions and relaxations of two sets of muscles.Snakes have a long back bone and many interconnected muscles that help them to slither.
36The skeleton comprises the skull, the back bone, ribs and the breast bone, shoulder and hipbones, and the bones of hands and legs.Earthworms move by alternate extension and contraction of the bodyusing muscles. Tiny bristles on the underside of the body help in grippingthe ground.Snails have shell,from which muscular foot protrudes and help in movement.Fishes have streamlined body and move forward as a result of thrust produced.Strong muscles and light bones work together to help the birds fly. Theyfly by flapping their wings.
37Human body and its movements Work map:SnakeFishEarthwormHuman body and its movementsGait of animalsSnailBody movementsCockroachJointsBirdsCartilagePelvic boneBall and SocketSpineHingeHuman skeletonPivotal jointArm bonesFixed jointSkullRib Cage
38Quiz Round…Fill in the blanks:(a) Joints of the bones help in the ——————— of the body.(b) A combination of bones and cartilages forms the _______ of the body.(c) The bones at the elbow are joined by a ______________________ joint.(d) The contraction of the _____________ pulls the bones during movement(e) The ball and socket joints can move in ______________ directions.(f) There are ____________ bones in the body.(g) Snails secrete ______________ for moving and for their protection.(h) Shell of snails is made up of ___________.(i) The birds Fore limbs are modified into ____________.(j) The joint present in neck region is_____________.
392. Match the Column I items with column II items. Column I Column IIUpper Jaw have fins on the body.Fish has an outer skeleton.Ribs can fly in air.Snail is an immovable joint.CockroachBirds protects the heart.Human Spin are streamlined .Earthworm have 33 bones.Snake do not have legs.Hinge joint Can move in 1direction
40Teachers are asked to assess kids performance . Hope you did well..Teachers are asked to assess kids performance .
41Resources for parents and teachers: WikipediaDavisPlus siteSome additional sites for parents:Resources for kids:Science KidsFOSS WEBYour Bones