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Animal Science II-Small Animal

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1 Animal Science II-Small Animal
Birds-Unit D3

2 Parrot Family Contains some of the smartest birds.
Many species can be taught to talk, are affectionate, and make excellent pets. Members of the parrot family are known for their large beaks, especially the Macaws. Includes Cockatoos, Cockatiels, Conures, Macaws, Parrots, Parakeets, Lovebirds, Hanging Parakeets

3 Cockatoos (Parrot Family)
Crest or tuft of feathers on the top of the head Ability to mimic words and sounds Intelligent Range in length from 13-30” Popular birds that make excellent pets Tame easily

4 Cockatoos (Parrot Family)

5 Cockatiel (Parrot Family)
One of the most popular pet birds About 12” long (the size of a small cockatoo) Commonly found in pet stores at a reasonable price Gray cockatiels are mostly available. Ideal for beginners and youngsters Easy to raise and affectionate

6 Cockatiel (Parrot Family)

7 African Gray Parrot (Parrot Family)
13” long Primary color is gray Very alert, intelligent and affectionate Considered to be the best talker of all birds Voice closely resembles a human voice

8 African Gray Parrot (Parrot Family)

9 Budgerigar-budgie (Parrot Family)
Most popular pet bird in the world Australian bird that gets its name, which means good bird or good food, from the Aborigines About 7” long with a primary color of yellowish- green Can be taught to talk with proper training Easy to care for, inexpensive pet Eats food from floor of cage

10 Budgerigar-budgie (Parrot Family)

11 Toucans (Woodpecker Family)
Fairly rare as pets May cost $2500 or more Very noisy birds About the size of a macaw Extremely large bill, which can be almost as long as the bird’s body

12 Toucans (Woodpecker Family)

13 Perching Birds Largest family of birds
Almost 60% of all birds (5,100 of 9,000 bird species) Good singers known as song birds

14 Starlings (Perching Family)
Talking Mynah bird is in this group. It is a black bird with an orange bill Has the ability to mimic the human voice and other sounds Require lots of care Cages must be cleaned daily because Mynah birds have a diet of fruit Prices range from $300 to $500

15 Starlings (Perching Family)

16 Canary (Perching Family)
Very important pet Some are bred for their color Others are bred for their singing ability Some are bred to have a crested top (feathering on the top of the head)

17 Canary (Perching Family)

18 Finches (Perching Family)
Small birds that are sociable in nature Bengalese Finch is the most social of all birds Zebra Finch is the most widely kept and bred finch in captivity.

19 Finches (Perching Family)

20 Perches Size and style depend on the bird
Most store bought cages come with hard plastic perches which may be uncomfortable for birds. If birds refuse to perch, replace plastic perches with wood perches that are more natural for birds.

21 Perches Larger birds like larger perches, smaller birds like smaller perches Finches/canaries- ½” round perch Budgerigars- ½” oval perch Parrots- 1’ square perch

22 Perches The perch for large parrot- type birds must be replaced as these birds destroy wood perches. However, the bird exercises its beak and stays busy in the process.

23 Perches Limbs and tree branches make natural perches, but care must be taken to insure they are free of mold and pesticide residue.

24 Perches Tapered perches work well because they give the bird a choice of most of the comfortable perching spot.

25 Water and Feed Containers
Water containers need to be hard and easy to clean materials like glass, ceramic, or stainless steel

26 Water and Feed Containers
Gravity-type waterers that hang outside the cage with a metal spout/tube extending into the cage work excellent.

27 Water and Feed Containers
Feed containers may be plastic for smaller birds, but parrot-type birds need the same kind of material used for watering containers

28 Toys Prevent boredom Large parrot-type birds need stainless-steel chains with bells Smaller birds like canaries and finches can have mirrors, chains with bells, and ladders

29 Cage Location Location of cage must be out of direct sunlight, free from drafts, in a place of constant temperature, and protected from hazards like poisonous plants and pets.

30 Feeding Most birds eat one of three things—seed, fruit, and/or nectar

31 Seed The vast majority of birds have a diet of seed
Cereal seeds—higher content of carbohydrates compared to oil Canary seed, millet, corn, dehusked oat kernals Oil seeds—higher in fat content than cereal seed and lower in carbohydrates Sunflower, peanuts, safflower, pine nuts, rape, maw niger, linseed

32 Seed Usually bought in a commercial premixed ration of cereal and oil seed that is formulated for certain bird species and provides balance and variety Should be dry and free of dust and dirt Moldy seed should never be fed (peanuts are very susceptible)

33 Seed May be soaked in warm water for 24 hours for young birds who may have difficulty cracking the seed with their beak or for birds during the breeding and molting season

34 Soaked Seeds Soaking stimulates germination which causes a chemical change that increases the protein content of the seeds. Before feeding, rinse in tap water and examine for mold or fungi Discard any soaked seeds not consumed within a few hours and clean containers before feeding more soaked seeds

35 Fruit Consumed by Mynah, lories, and lorikeets
Diet does not include seeds, grit, and cuttlefish Soft bill pellets or foods from the pet store Fruit—apple slices, grapes, orange slices, and banana or dried fruit can be fed Mealworms are live food that can be fed also

36 Nectar Nectar and pollen are consumed by lories and lorikeets
Powdered nectar is available from a pet store to mix with water

37 Other Feed Options Green plant material
Carrot tops, chickweed, dandelion leaves Kale and spinach in moderation (too much green can cause diarrhea) Avoid lettuce because it lacks nutritional value Wash to remove any pesticide residue Feed after it has warmed to room temperature

38 Other Feed Options Grit aids in the ventriculus in grinding food up since birds have no teeth Soluble-oyster shell breaks down and is a source of minerals Insoluble-crushed granite provides the base for food to rub and work against to be ground up

39 Other Feed Options Cuttlefish bone (marine mollusk)
Provides a source of calcium and will readily be eaten by larger birds Smaller birds may need cuttlefish shaved or chipped Particularly useful to female birds who need calcium for egg production

40 Handling and Training Allow birds to adjust to new locations for 2 to 3 days before any handling is attempted. Offer a treat at regular intervals until it will take the treat through an open door cage Press a stick perch up against the bird’s chest above the legs to encourage the bird to step up on it

41 Handling and Training Once the bird is comfortable one may substitute a finger or hand for the bird to perch on Leather gloves may be needed for larger birds that use their beak to climb to perch

42 Clipping Wings Wings can be clipped to restrict their ability to fly and prevent escape Painless Primary and secondary flight feathers are cut just above the base of the feather shaft Cutting into the feather shaft will result in injury and bleeding

43 Clipping Wings The two outer primary flight feathers are left for aesthetic purposes

44 Teaching to Talk Budgerigars, cockatiels, parrots, macaws and cockatoos can be taught to talk Young males are usually the best learners and easiest to teach Remove distractions such as mirrors, toys, and feed during lessons The same person needs to work with a bird on a regular basis. Usually women and children are better trainers.

45 Teaching to Talk Lessons should be given at the same time everyday.
Limit the length to about 15 minutes each day Use short phrases and words and slowly repeat them

46 Competency 20.00 Use principles of bird management to create a healthy habitat for pet birds.

47 Parasites of Birds

48 Internal Parasites Rarely a problem with birds Roundworms
Diagnosis is by observing feces for long, thin, white worms. Contracted from ingesting worm eggs in contaminated feces, soil, or food. Symptoms: blockage of intestines, poor plummage, weight loss, diarrhea. Treatments are available

49 Internal Parasites Tapeworms
Diagnosed by observing small rice-like segments in the feces Contracted from eating an intermediate host such as house flies, fleas, ticks, or earthworms. Proper cleaning and sanitation are the best prevention. Treatment with piprazine, nicotine sulfate and Kamal powder

50 External Parasites Red Mites
Appear as tiny red specks and feed on blood of infected birds at night, causing restlessness, scratching, and picking at their feathers. Spread through contact with infected birds. Adults may be dusted with pyrethium powder. Clean and disinfect all cages and nest boxes.

51 External Parasites Feather Mites
Cause a bird to chew or pick its feathers. Look for small, gray-colored moving specks Feed on the bird during both day and night Symptoms: restlessness, severe scratching, feather picking, skin irritation Cages and equipment should be treated with nicotine sulfate, Malathion, or coumaphos and birds should be sprayed with a mite spray.

52 External Parasites Scaly Leg Mites
Tunnel under the scales on the legs of budgerigars, lovebirds, and canaries. Live their entire life cycle on the bird. Symptoms: white scaly deposits that become thickened, enlarged, and encrusted Treatment: Use Vaseline or mineral oil to kill the mites and loosen deposits. This also suffocates the mites.

53 Scaly Leg Mite

54 Bacterial Diseases in Birds

55 Parrot Fever Chlamydiosis or psittacosis
Bacterial disease that affects the liver and spleen. Contracted mainly through feces and contaminated food and water. Symptoms: nasal discharges, listlessness, appetite loss, weight loss, greenish-colored diarrhea and labored breathing.

56 Parrot Fever Psittacosis can be transmitted to humans.
Treat birds with chlortetracycline-impregnated seed for at least 21 days.

57 Bumblefoot A painful ailment associated with staphylococcal infections. Symptoms: feet and joints become hot and swollen with a thick, grayish white fluid and not walking or clasping onto perch. Prevent by using suitable perches and sanitation. Treatment is with antibiotics.

58 Bumblefoot

59 Viral Diseases in Birds

60 Psittacine Beak and Feather Disease
A.K.A. French Molt Viral disease that attacks the immune system. Symptoms become evident at the first molt when new feathers do not emerge or are deformed and break off. Nails may be soft, overgrown, and lose their pigment.

61 Psittacine Beak and Feather Disease
There is no cure for this disease. Treatment is with vitamins, minerals, and control of secondary diseases through sanitation.

62 Newcastle Disease Viral disease that has high mortality rates and spreads rapidly. Imported birds are the main source of possible infection. Symptoms: Respiratory difficulty (wheezing) followed by tremors, wing droop, and a twisted neck. Birds should be vaccinated to prevent the disease.

63 Nutritional Problems in Birds

64 Goiter Swelling of the thyroid glands in the neck and interference with breathing. Major cause is iodine deficiency. Especially a problem for budgerigars

65 Rickets (Osteomalacia)
Imbalance or deficient amount of calcium, phosphorus, or Vitamin D3 that causes deterioration or softening of the bones. Symptoms: lameness, stiff-legged gait, constant resting in the squatting position, decreased growth. Oyster shell or coarse limestone in the diet and Vitamin D3 supplementation is the best preventative.

66 Obesity Too much food, not enough activity or seeds high in fat.
Bird owners should avoid feeding too many sunflower seeds if obesity is a problem.

67 Other Aviary Problems

68 Overgrown Claws Can result in injury if they become entangled in the cage. May be clipped with pet nail clippers. Avoid the pinkish streak in the center of the claw. It is a blood vessel.

69 Feather Plucking Boredom, bad diet, needs mate, lack of bathing
Birds living indoors need regular bathing or spraying to encourage preening. Preening is the process that birds go through in cleaning and trimming its feathers with its beak.

70 Symptoms of Problems with Birds
Sleeping on two legs may indicate that a bird is uncomfortable or ailing. Birds normally sleep on only one leg. A bird that fluffs its feathers out is usually chilled and trying to retain body heat. If feces are runny, a digestive ailment may be the problem. Not flying and lack of activity may indicate the bird is sick.

71 Symptoms of Problems with Birds
Eye discharges or continually closed eyes are an indication of cold, etc. Wheezing, noisy, or irregular breathing may be a sign of a respiratory problem. Not eating or very little eating indicates a loss of appetite that is often associated with sickness.

72 Prevention of Diseases and Ailments
Select a healthy bird Place bird in a dry, warm, draft-free place Subject the bird to little stress No other animals should be around Quarantine and observation period of at least 3-4 weeks before introducing to other birds. Keep perches and cage clean

73 Prevention of Diseases and Ailments
Sanitation is extremely important—should provide fresh food and water.

74 Prevention of Diseases and Ailments
Bathing and spraying reduces feather dust and dirt and cuts down on mites Small birds prefer to bathe in a container which may be placed in the cage at regular intervals for 30 minute time periods. Large birds need to be sprayed with a fine mist from a plant sprayer. Mist should be sprayed above the animal and allowed to filter down. Do not saturate, but gently spray 2-3 times per week.

75 At the First Sign of Illness
Cage temperature should be maintained between degrees F. Move the cage to a warmer location Adjust the temperature with a light bulb near the cage or a heating pad under the cage. Provide 2 or 3 perches so that the bird can find the most comfortable temperature

76 At the First Sign of Illness
Partially cover the cage to prevent drafts Provide quick energy fluids such as sugar water, honey water, or orange juice.

77 Birds 101 Video Sources


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