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T HE A PPENDICULAR S KELETON Composed of 126 bones Limbs (appendages) Pectoral girdle Pelvic girdle.

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Presentation on theme: "T HE A PPENDICULAR S KELETON Composed of 126 bones Limbs (appendages) Pectoral girdle Pelvic girdle."— Presentation transcript:

1 T HE A PPENDICULAR S KELETON Composed of 126 bones Limbs (appendages) Pectoral girdle Pelvic girdle

2 T HE A PPENDICULAR S KELETON Figure 5.6a acromion

3 T HE A PPENDICULAR S KELETON Figure 5.6b

4 T HE P ECTORAL (S HOULDER ) G IRDLE Composed of two bones Clavicle—collarbone – slender bone; at risk to fracture Scapula—shoulder blade These bones allow the upper limb to have exceptionally free movement The clavicle serves as a brace to hold the arm away from the top of the thorax…so there is no problem with the arm clearing the widest dimension of the thoracic cage.

5 B ONES OF THE S HOULDER G IRDLE Figure 5.21a Coracoid process greater tubercle

6 B ONES OF THE S HOULDER G IRDLE Figure 5.21b CLAVICLE (#2)

7 B ONES OF THE S HOULDER G IRDLE Figure 5.21c–d * * * * SCAPULA (#1)

8 B ONES OF THE U PPER L IMBS Humerus Forms the arm Single bone

9 B ONES OF THE U PPER L IMBS Figure 5.22a–b * * * * * * * Humerus (#3) *

10 B ONES OF THE U PPER L IMBS The forearm has two bones Ulna Medial bone in anatomical position Radius Lateral bone in anatomical position

11 B ONES OF THE U PPER L IMBS Figure 5.22c Radius (#4) & Ulna (#5) * * * *

12 B ONES OF THE U PPER L IMBS The hand Carpals—wrist 8 bones Metacarpals—palm Phalanges—fingers 14 bones

13 B ONES OF THE U PPER L IMBS Figure 5.23 Carpal (#6), Metacarpals (#7), Phalanges (#8)

14 B ONES OF THE P ELVIC G IRDLE Formed by two coxal (ossa coxae) bones Composed of three pairs of fused bones Ilium Ischium Pubis Pectoral Girdle is more flexible Pelvic Girdle is more secure and better able to bear weight

15 B ONES OF THE P ELVIC G IRDLE The total weight of the upper body rests on the pelvis…therefore, must be massive It protects several organs Reproductive organs Urinary bladder Part of the large intestine People instinctively curl over to protect internal organs

16 T HE P ELVIS Figure 5.24a More massive than 4 legged creatures because it has to bear more weight.

17 T HE P ELVIS : R IGHT C OXAL B ONE Figure 5.24b * * * * * * * * * * Illium = yellow bone #1 Ischium = Purple bone #2 Pubis = Red bone #3

18 G ENDER D IFFERENCES OF THE P ELVIS The female inlet is larger and more circular The female pelvis as a whole is shallower, and the bones are lighter and thinner The female ilia flare more laterally The female sacrum is shorter and less curved The female ischial spines are shorter and farther apart; thus the outlet is larger The female pubic arch is more rounded because the angle of the pubic arch is greater

19 G ENDER D IFFERENCES OF THE P ELVIS Figure 5.24c

20 T RUE VS FALSE PELVIS The greater or FALSE pelvis is located above the pelvic brim- SUPERIOR; supports the abdominal viscera the organs contained within the abdominal cavity; they include the stomach, intestines, liver, spleen, pancreas, and parts of the urinary and reproductive tracts The lesser or TRUE pelvis below the brim- INFERIOR; limits delivery of baby

21 B ONES OF THE L OWER L IMBS The thigh has one bone Femur The heaviest, strongest bone in the body

22 B ONES OF THE L OWER L IMBS F EMUR #4 Figure 5.25a–b * * * * * * * * * * Anterior view of right femur Posterior view of right femur Patella # 5

23 B ONES OF THE L OWER L IMBS The lower leg has two bones Tibia Shinbone Larger and medially oriented Fibula Thin and sticklike

24 B ONES OF THE L OWER L IMBS Figure 5.25c Fibula #6 Tibia #7 * * * * *

25 B ONES OF THE L OWER L IMBS The foot Tarsals Two largest tarsals Calcaneus (heelbone) Talus Metatarsals—sole Phalanges—toes

26 B ONES OF THE L OWER L IMB Figure 5.26 Talus #8 Calcaneus #9 Metatarsals #10 Phalanges #11

27 A RCHES OF THE F OOT Bones of the foot are arranged to form three strong arches Two longitudinal One transverse

28 A RCHES OF THE F OOT Figure 5.27

29 F ALLEN A RCHES The ligament and tendons are weakend, allowing bones to “fall”


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