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Copepod biodiversity in four different coastal ecosystems along the Straits of Malacca F. M. Yusoff & H. Matias-Peralta Institute of Bioscience, Universiti.

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Presentation on theme: "Copepod biodiversity in four different coastal ecosystems along the Straits of Malacca F. M. Yusoff & H. Matias-Peralta Institute of Bioscience, Universiti."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copepod biodiversity in four different coastal ecosystems along the Straits of Malacca F. M. Yusoff & H. Matias-Peralta Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor JSPS Meeting, Malacca, 19 & 20 th May 2008 JSPS UPM

2 UPM- JSPS Projects  2001 – 2005:  Copepod biodiversity in an estuarine ecosystem, Langat River, Malaysia  2006 – 2010:  Copepod species composition & abundance in coastal ecosystems, the Straits of Malacca: Sea-grass, cage-culture, off shrimp farm, off mangrove forest Sea-grass, cage-culture, off shrimp farm, off mangrove forest  Copepod composition in polluted vs non- polluted environment

3 November 2005 – rainfall (amount in mm) Northeast monsoon Sea grass Shrimp farm Cages Mangroves

4 March 2006 – rainfall (amount in mm) Inter- monsoon

5 May 2006 – rainfall (amount in mm) Southwest monsoon

6 Monsoon seasons in Malaysia Monsoon season Months Northeast November to February Inter-monsoon March to April Southwest May to August Inter-monsoon September to October Source: Malaysian Meteorological Departmenthttp://www.met.gov.my/english/publication/mwb.html

7 1.01’ N 103’ E 2.01’ N 103’ E 3.01’ N 103’ E Sea Grass Bed

8 1.03’ N 101’ E 2.03’ N 101’ E 3.03’ N 101’ E Marine Cage Aquaculture

9 1.N 03°15.105’ E 101°17.790’ 2.N 03°15.712’ E 101°16.673’ 3.N 03°16.083’ E 101°16.345’ Off shrimp farms

10 1.N 04°49.246’ E 100°32.976’ 2.N 04°49.031’ E 100°32.979’ 3.N 04°48.515’ E 100°32.728’ Off mangrove areas

11 Sampling from four ecosystems along the Straits of Malacca from four ecosystems along the Straits of Malacca from four ecosystems along the Straits of Malacca from four ecosystems along the Straits of Malacca 3 points in each site; triplicates from each point 3 points in each site; triplicates from each point 6X/bi-monthly 6X/bi-monthly Field preservation Field preservation Lab. Processes Lab. Processes Water quality analyses Water quality analyses Identification & enumeration Identification & enumeration

12 Sample collection SampleEquipmentMethod Copepod 100µm mesh size (50cm dia x 100cm length) Vertical tows Water (D.O., pH, Temp, Sal. Cond. TDS, Turb.) Hydrolab Surveyor (4A) Every 1 meter depth Water (nutrients: TAN, nitrite-N, TN, SRP and TP) VanDorn water sampler Pooled sample (Surface & bottom) 5% buffered (pH ) formalin Copepod (identification, enumeration and biomass)

13 Sample processing Samples (3 bottles) Split samples with Folsom plankton splitter sorting, identification & enumeration sorting, biomass Wet weight Dry weight Ash-free dry weight Dissecting microscope Compound microscope

14 Group Seagrass bed Coastal waters off a mangrove forest reserve Coastal waters off a shrimp farm Cage culture area Copepods Nauplii Nauplii Copepodids Copepodids Calanoids Calanoids Cyclopoids Cyclopoids Harpacticoids Harpacticoids Poecilostomatoids Non-copepod % of copepod and non-copepod groups from different coastal zone ecosystems in the Malacca Straits

15 Copepod density (x10 4 ind/m 3 ) in 4 coastal ecosystems along the Malacca Straits a a b b

16 Copepod density (x10 4 ind/m 3 ) in 4 coastal ecosystems along the Straits of Malacca, in different seasons Natural ecosystems

17 Density (x 10 4 ind/m 3 ) of copepod vs non-copepod at different monsoon season in the seagrass area (significant difference within the seasons) Density (x 10 4 ind/m 3 ) of copepod vs non-copepod at different monsoon season in the seagrass area (significant difference within the seasons) c b c a c c b a

18 Density (x 10 3 ind/m 3 ) of copepods vs non-copepods in diff. monsoon seasons in cage aquaculture area Density (x 10 3 ind/m 3 ) of copepods vs non-copepods in diff. monsoon seasons in cage aquaculture area a b a a b a b b

19 Density (x 10 4 ind/m 3 ) of copepod vs non-copepod in different monsoon seasons in the coastal waters off a shrimp aquaculture farm ( no significant difference between seasons ) a b a b a b a b

20 Density (x 10 4 ind/m 3 ) of copepod vs non-copepod at different monsoon season in the coastal waters off mangrove area Density (x 10 4 ind/m 3 ) of copepod vs non-copepod at different monsoon season in the coastal waters off mangrove area a a a a b a b b

21 Copepod biomass (mg/m 3 ) in 4 different coastal ecosystems along the Malacca Straits a b c c

22 Copepod biomass (mg/m 3 ) in four different coastal ecosystems along the Straits of Malacca in different seasons

23 Abundance (x 10 4 ind/m 3 ) of common copepod species in different size fractions (mm) in 4 coastal ecosystems along Malacca Straits Abundance (x 10 4 ind/m 3 ) of common copepod species in different size fractions (mm) in 4 coastal ecosystems along Malacca Straits a a b a a b aa aa a b

24 Abundance of common copepod species (x 10 3 ind/m 3 ) in different size fractions (mm) in diff. monsoon seasons in seagrass area Abundance of common copepod species (x 10 3 ind/m 3 ) in different size fractions (mm) in diff. monsoon seasons in seagrass area a a a a b a a a a b

25 Abundance of common copepod species (x 10 3 ind/m 3 ) in different size fractions (mm)in different monsoon seasons in the cage aquaculture area (significant difference within size fractions exist depending on the season) Abundance of common copepod species (x 10 3 ind/m 3 ) in different size fractions (mm)in different monsoon seasons in the cage aquaculture area (significant difference within size fractions exist depending on the season) a b c a a a a b c a a b

26 Abundance of common copepod species (x 10 4 ind/m 3 ) in different size fractions (mm) in diff. seasons in waters off a shrimp aquaculture farm. Abundance of common copepod species (x 10 4 ind/m 3 ) in different size fractions (mm) in diff. seasons in waters off a shrimp aquaculture farm. a a b a a b a a b a a b

27 Copepod density (x 10 3 ind/m 3 ) in different size fractions (mm) in diff. monsoon seasons in coastal waters off mangrove forest (lowest (p<0.05) density for bigger size copepod) Copepod density (x 10 3 ind/m 3 ) in different size fractions (mm) in diff. monsoon seasons in coastal waters off mangrove forest (lowest (p<0.05) density for bigger size copepod) a a b a a b a a b a a b

28 Copepod species in different size fractions (mm) Size category (mm) < >1.0 Nauplii, copepodites, Oithona rigida O.simplex Euterpina acutifrons Oncaea sp. Clausocalanus minor Paracalanus aculateus, P. crassirostris, P. elegans, P. parvus, Acartia pacifica, Acartia sp 1, Acrocalanus gibber, Oithona sp.1, Microsetella norwegica Nannocalanus sp., Acartia erythraea, Candacia discauda, Candacia catula, Tortanus forcipatus, Tortanus sp.1 Centropages furcatus Eucalanus crassus E. subcrassus, E. subtenuis, Labidocera acuta Tortanus barbatus Temora stylifera Temora turbinate

29 Species diversity index (H’), evenness (J’) and species richness in 4 ecosystems in Malacca Straits in diff. seasons

30 Index Seagrass bed Coastal waters off a mangrove forest reserve Coastal waters off a shrimp farm Cage culture area H’ (species diversity index 3.24± ± ± ±0.02 J’ Species evenness 0.90 ± ± ± ±0.01 d (species richness) 4.97 ± ± ± ±0.26 Copepod diversity indices from different coastal zone ecosystems in the Malacca Straits

31 # Genera# SpeciesH’ 3067 Seagrass ± 0.03 Cage Aquac ±0.02 Shrimp farm ± 0.03 Mangroves ±0.02

32 Dendograms of 4 ecosystems along the Straits of Malacca. Coastal Waters Specific Ecosystems

33 Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling of four different coastal ecosystems along Malacca Straits Shrimp F Shrimp Farm Seagrass Bed Cage Aquac Mangroves

34 Seagrass bed Mangrove Shrimp farm Cage Temp (ºC) 29.88± ± ± ±0.36 Salinity (ppt) 30.86± ± ± ±0.71 pH7.88± ± ± ± 0.01 Diss.O 2 (mg/L) 4.68± ± ± ±0.18 Conductivity (µS/cm) 47.32± ± ± ±0.97 Turbidity (NTU) 11.58± ± ± ±0.61 TDS (mg/L) 30.36± ± ± ±0.62 In situ water quality parameter in different coastal zone ecosystems in the Malacca Straits.

35 Changes in SRP concentrations (µg/L) in 4 coastal ecosystems along the Straits of Malacca in diff. seasons SRP concentrations (µg/L)

36 Changes in Total P conc.(µg/L) in 4 coastal ecosystems along the Straits of Malacca in diff. seasons Total P concentrations (µg/L)

37 Changes in total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) concentrations (µg/L) in 4 coastal ecosystems along the Straits of Malacca in diff. seasons TAN concentrations (µg/L)

38 Changes in nitrite nitrogen concentrations (µg/L) in 4 ecosystems along the Straits of Malacca in diff. seasons Nitrite-N concentrations (µg/L)

39 Changes in total nitrogen concentrations (µg/L) in 4 coastal ecosystems along the Straits of Malacca in diff. seasons Total nitrogen concentrations (µg/L)

40 Groups Seagrass area Cage culture area Coastal waters off a shrimp aqua farm Coastal waters off mangroves Calanoids Paracalanus spp Clausocalanus spp Acartia spp Cyclopoids Oithona spp The most dominant copepod genera from different coastal zone ecosystems along the Malacca Straits Oithona spp

41 List of copepod species from 4 ecosystems (seagrass = S; coastal waters off a mangrove forest reserve = M; coastal waters off a shrimp aquaculture farm = SF and cage culture area = C) in the Straits of Malacca. Group/FamilyGeneraNumber of species SMSFC Calanoid AcartidaeAcartia3333 CalanidaeCanthocalanus1--1 Nannocalanus1--1 Undinula1--- CandacidaeCandacia--33 CentropagidaeCentropages4--4 Clausocalanus3-33 EucalanidaeEucalanus-333 EuchaetidaeEuchaeta---2

42 Group/FamilyGeneraNo. of species SMSFC Calanoid MetridinidaePleuromamma---1 PontellidaeCalanopia---3 Labidocera6666 Pontella---1 Pontellopsis1--- ParacalanidaeAcrocalanus3233 Paracalanus4444 PseudodiaptomidaePseudodiaptomus--2- TemoridaeTemora3332 TortaridaeTortanus3333 Sub-Total Cyclopoid OithonidaeOithona4656 Sub-Total4656

43 FamilyGeneraNumber of species SMSFC Harpacticoid ClytemnestridaeClytemnestra11-1 EctinosomatidaeMicrosetella1111 EuterpinidaeEuterpina1111 MiraciidaeMacrosetella--1- Miracia1--- Sub-Total4333 Poecilostomatoid CorycaecidaeCorycaeus4-24 OncaeidaeOncaea1111 SapphirinidaeCopilia21-2 Sub-Total7237 Grand Total

44 Conclusions Dominance –Copepods dominated: ~70% vs. 30% –Amongst copepods: Calanoid dominated: 26-46%, followed by cyclopoids Densities & Biomass –Coastal waters (mangroves & shrimps) higher than specific areas (sea-grass beds & cages); both densities & biomass –Higher densities during NE monsoon in sea-grass & off- mangrove areas – Biomass relatively constant throughout

45 Conclusions - Cont Size distribution –All ecosystems dominated by small-medium species; <1.0 mm –Similar trends throughout seasons, small % of big copepods, >1.0 mm –In sea-grass area, higher density of medium sized copepods (0.5 – 1.0 mm), esp. in NE monsoon –In other areas, small copepods (<0.5 mm) dominate Clustering –2 distinct areas: off-shore mangroves and shrimp farm areas In specific areas: seagrass & cages: with high fish larvae – high predation? – difficult without adequate data

46 Conclusions - Cont Species Diversity –Higher species diversity in areas in sea-grass bed & cage culture area (in low density areas) –Mainly due to differences in richness Controlling factor?– medium predation? Keep density low, and Biodiversity high Higher nutrients in shrimp and mangrove areas – higher density More datasets required to explain observations


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