This part gets technical not for some audiences We are good at predicting shaft shape underground due to very accurate concrete energy models The next several slide discuss how energy is computed so we know how hot or cold a normal shaft should be.
Modeling Energy Production Cementitious composition Flyash composition Total cementitious concent Water cement ratio
Hydration Energy (Schindler, 2005) Cement Energy Production Total Energy Production
Hydration Energy (Schindler, 2005) Degree of Hydration Rate of Energy Production
Input Parameters (available from concrete supplier)
Good Models Tell us what normal temperature should be Cast Shaft Test Shaft 28 hrs after casting Shaft Size 42 inches Normal shaft temp = 124F
Ground Temperature Modeling MUST KNOW ORIGINAL GROUND TEMP Ground temperature not constant with depth Dependent on soil type, time of day, day of year, previous daily air temperature Long duration modeling used to condition the soil temperature boundary conditions
Historical Air Temperature (soil conditioning) Test Date
Daily Air Temperature (time of casting to testing) Time of Casting Time of Testing
Manual Soil Temperature Measurements Provide Model Calibration / Verification Cold Shaft Testing (4 year old test shaft) Modeled
Conclusions Infra-red Thermal Integrity testing shows remarkable capability to detect anomalies outside the reinforcing cage (bulges, necks,) as well as misaligned cages Advances in modeling energy production and soil temperature increase resolution of anomaly predictions.
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