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8-1 International Business: Opportunities and Challenges in a Flattening World, 1e By Mason Carpenter and Sanjyot P. Dunung © Sanjyot Dunung 2011, published.

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Presentation on theme: "8-1 International Business: Opportunities and Challenges in a Flattening World, 1e By Mason Carpenter and Sanjyot P. Dunung © Sanjyot Dunung 2011, published."— Presentation transcript:

1 8-1 International Business: Opportunities and Challenges in a Flattening World, 1e By Mason Carpenter and Sanjyot P. Dunung © Sanjyot Dunung 2011, published by Flat World Knowledge

2 8-2 This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA © Sanjyot Dunung 2011, published by Flat World Knowledge

3 8-3 Chapter 8 International Expansion and Global Market Opportunity Assessment © Sanjyot Dunung 2011, published by Flat World Knowledge

4 8-4 Learning Objectives Learn about the rationale and motivations for international expansion Understand the importance of international due diligence Recognize the role of regional differences, consumer preferences, and industry dynamics Know the components of PESTEL analysis Recognize how PESTEL is related to the dimensions of globalization Understand why importing might be a stealth form of international entry © Sanjyot Dunung 2011, published by Flat World Knowledge

5 8-5 Learning Objectives Describe the five common international-expansion entry modes Know the advantages and disadvantages of each entry mode Understand the dynamics among the choice of different entry modes © Sanjyot Dunung 2011, published by Flat World Knowledge

6 8-6 © Sanjyot Dunung 2011, published by Flat World Knowledge

7 Rationale for International Expansion To improve the cost-effectiveness of their operations To expand into new markets for new customers To follow global customers 8-7 © Sanjyot Dunung 2011, published by Flat World Knowledge

8 Planning for International Expansion It is important for firms to prioritize which countries to enter first and to evaluate each country’s relative merits because: – Many markets look appealing due to their market size or low-cost production 8-8 © Sanjyot Dunung 2011, published by Flat World Knowledge

9 International Market Due Diligence Involves analyzing foreign markets for their potential size, accessibility, cost of operations, and buyer needs and practices to aid the company in deciding whether to invest in entering that market Includes: – Regional differences – Understanding local consumers – How to learn the needs of a new foreign market – Differentiation and capability – Industry dynamics 8-9 © Sanjyot Dunung 2011, published by Flat World Knowledge

10 Know the Components of PESTEL Analysis PESTEL analysis – An important and widely used tool that helps present the big picture of a firm’s external environment in political, economic, sociocultural, technological, environmental, and legal contexts, particularly as related to foreign markets; analyzes for market growth or decline and the position, potential, and direction for a business Three steps in the PESTEL analysis – Consider the relevance of each of the PESTEL factors to your context – Identify and categorize the information that applies to these factors – Analyze the data and draw conclusions 8-10 © Sanjyot Dunung 2011, published by Flat World Knowledge

11 Factors Favoring Industry Globalization 8-11 Markets – Homogeneous customer needs – Global customer needs – Global channels – Transferable marketing approaches Costs – Large-scale and large-scope economies – Learning and experience – Sourcing efficiencies © Sanjyot Dunung 2011, published by Flat World Knowledge

12 Factors Favoring Industry Globalization 8-12 – Favorable logistics – Arbitrage opportunities – High research-and-development (R&D) costs Governments – Favorable trade policies – Common technological standards – Common manufacturing and marketing regulations © Sanjyot Dunung 2011, published by Flat World Knowledge

13 Factors Favoring Industry Globalization 8-13 Competition – Interdependent countries – Global competitors © Sanjyot Dunung 2011, published by Flat World Knowledge

14 Importing as a Stealth Form of Internationalization Importing: The sale of products or services in one country that are sourced in another country Firms that engage in importing must learn about: – Customs requirements – Informed compliance with customs regulations – Entry of goods – Invoices – Classification and value – Determination and assessment of duty 8-14 © Sanjyot Dunung 2011, published by Flat World Knowledge

15 Importing as a Stealth Form of Internationalization – Special requirements – Fraud – Marketing – Trade finance and insurance – Foreign trade zones 8-15 © Sanjyot Dunung 2011, published by Flat World Knowledge

16 Importing as a Stealth Form of Internationalization Outsourcing: Contracting with a third party to do some of a company’s work on its behalf Offshoring: Taking some business function out of the company’s country of origin to be performed in another country, generally at a lower cost International outsourcing: The term for both outsourcing and offshoring work, or outsourcing to a nondomestic third party 8-16 © Sanjyot Dunung 2011, published by Flat World Knowledge

17 Table 8.1 - International-Expansion Entry Modes 8-17 © Sanjyot Dunung 2011, published by Flat World Knowledge

18 Common International-Expansion Entry Modes Strategic alliance: An international entry mode involving a contractual agreement between two or more enterprises stipulating that the involved parties will cooperate in a certain way for a certain time to achieve a common purpose Greenfield venture: An international entry mode involving the establishment of a new, wholly owned subsidiary 8-18 © Sanjyot Dunung 2011, published by Flat World Knowledge

19 Common International-Expansion Entry Modes Licensing: An international entry mode involving the granting of permission by the licenser to the licensee to use intellectual property rights, such as trademarks, patents, or technology, under defined conditions Acquisition: An international entry mode in which a firm gains control of another firm by purchasing its stock, exchanging stock, or, in the case of a private firm, paying the owners a purchase price 8-19 © Sanjyot Dunung 2011, published by Flat World Knowledge

20 Cage Analysis CAGE framework: The analytical framework used to understand country and regional differences along the distance dimensions of culture, administration, geography, and economics 8-20 © Sanjyot Dunung 2011, published by Flat World Knowledge

21 Table 8.2 - The CAGE Framework 8-21 © Sanjyot Dunung 2011, published by Flat World Knowledge

22 Table 8.2 - The CAGE Framework 8-22 © Sanjyot Dunung 2011, published by Flat World Knowledge

23 Table 8.2 - The CAGE Framework 8-23 © Sanjyot Dunung 2011, published by Flat World Knowledge

24 CAGE Analysis and Institutional Voids Institutional voids: The absence of key specialized intermediaries found in the markets of finance, managerial talent, and products, which otherwise reduce transaction costs 8-24 © Sanjyot Dunung 2011, published by Flat World Knowledge

25 Table 8.3 - Specialized Intermediaries within a Country or Other Geographic Arena 8-25 © Sanjyot Dunung 2011, published by Flat World Knowledge

26 Strategies for Handling Institutional Voids Adapt its business model Change the institutional context Stay away 8-26 © Sanjyot Dunung 2011, published by Flat World Knowledge

27 The History and Role of Scenario Planning and Analysis SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats): A strategic management tool that helps an organization take stock of its internal characteristics (strengths and weaknesses) to formulate an action plan that builds on what it does well while overcoming or working around weaknesses and assess external environmental conditions (opportunities and threats) that favor or threaten the organization’s strategy 8-27 © Sanjyot Dunung 2011, published by Flat World Knowledge

28 The History and Role of Scenario Planning and Analysis Scenario planning: A process of analyzing possible future events by considering alternative possible outcomes (scenarios) Steps: – Choose the target issue, scope and time frame that the scenario will explore – Brainstorm a set of key drivers and decision factors that influence the scenario – Define the two dimensions of greatest uncertainty – Detail the four quadrants of the scenarios with stories – Identify indicators that could signal which scenario is unfolding – Assess the strategic implications of each scenario 8-28 © Sanjyot Dunung 2011, published by Flat World Knowledge

29 Trends and Uncertainties Trends In the context of scenario planning, forces for change whose direction, and sometimes timing, can be predicted Uncertainties In the context of scenario planning, forces for change whose direction, and sometimes timing, can be predicted 8-29 © Sanjyot Dunung 2011, published by Flat World Knowledge


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