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Assessment of the sustainability of aquaculture production systems - Cage fish culture in the Mediterranean - (Cyprus and France) EVAD Project – Évaluation.

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Presentation on theme: "Assessment of the sustainability of aquaculture production systems - Cage fish culture in the Mediterranean - (Cyprus and France) EVAD Project – Évaluation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Assessment of the sustainability of aquaculture production systems - Cage fish culture in the Mediterranean - (Cyprus and France) EVAD Project – Évaluation de la durabilité des systèmes de production aquacoles Montpellier, November th, 2008

2 Mediterranean fish culture in cage Typology of Mediterranean farms Stake holders and inquiries Selection and validation of the P. C. I. Sustainability diagnostic Conclusion and prospects

3 Mediterranean fish culture Mediterranean seabass and seabream production between 200 and T 99% of total produced in cages Greece, Turkey, Italy and Spain produce around 90% France (cages) and Cyprus produce both around T Strong governmental incentives to move the cages from the sea shore to more offshore No development of cage farming in France in the last 15 years / quick development in other countries

4 Mediterranean fish culture Total production (%) source : University of Stirling, % 15% 23% 14% 60% 26% Number of companies (%) Disparition of the medium size companies Concentration of the production

5 Fish culture in some mediterranean countries source : University of Stirling, 2004 National production (%) Number of companies (%) In Greece and France, 70 to 80% of the production from few large size companies (less than 35% of the farms) In Turkey and Italy, 70 to 80% of the production from medium and small size companies (more than 90% of the farms)

6 Large range of farm size / production structure among the countries Periodic price crisis due to overproduction - in , 2008… Restructuration of the production systems mainly accelerated by the crisis financial losses : loss of capital farm disappearing / regrouping in financial holding (multi-sites) - up-scaling of the production unit - technological innovations (offshore) - production segmentation : subcontracting and specialization Mediterranean fish culture main characteristics

7 Mediterranean fish culture in cage Typology of Mediterranean farms Stake holders and inquiries Selection and validation of the P. C. I. Sustainability diagnostic Conclusion and prospects

8 Difficulties for collecting on the field information in Greece, Spain, Turkey, Croatia and Italy: Difficult access to true key data for foreign experts due to a strong competition of the farms on the international market Mediterranean field restricted to Cyprus and France Partner farms : 4 farms in Cyprus and 8 farms in France Nevertheless, representation of the main features of the Mediterranean sector Typology of the mediterranean farms

9 TypeLarge size > 500 TMedium sizeSmall size < 100 T CapitalOpenFamilialOpen/familialMainly familial SitesSeveral 1 or several No Specificity Most Impacted by crisis One ManpowerNon familial Familial ProductsMono or several Several species and products - Labels - For specific markets For specific markets MarketInternatio.Independ. for marketing National or niche markets Proximity markets or retailers Typology of the farms

10 TypeLarge size > 500 TMedium sizeSmall size < 100 T CapitalOpenFamilialOpen/familialOpenFamilial SitesSeveral No Specificity Most Impacted by crisis One ManpowerNon familial Familial ProductsMono or several Several species and products Labels For specific markets MarketInternatio.Independ. for marketing National or niche markets Proximity markets or retailers Typology of the farms

11 3 types of marine cage farms : Small size < 100 T/year Large size > 500 T / year familial capital Large size > 500 T / year open capital

12 Mediterranean fish culture in cage Typology of Mediterranean farms Stake holders and inquiries Selection and validation of the P. C. I. Sustainability diagnostic Conclusion and prospects

13 Main steps and contributors in the Mediterranean Typology of the fish culture systems Regulation systems analysis Perception inquieries - data collection in Cyprus Perception inquieries - data collection in France P. C. and check-list of indicators Sustainability diagnostic Selection and validation of the indicators Construction and quantification of the indicators Olivier Brunel Syndhia Mathé Eva Moisset Edouard Geoffray Quiterie Sourget Emmanuelle Roque

14 Stake holders and inquiries Regulation system analysis and perception inquiries Nature NGO WWF France, IUCN, AKTI Feed manufacturers (BIOMAR)Hatcheries (LPDS, SAGRO LTD) Administration Affaires maritimes PACA, Corse, Alpes Maritimes; PACA Cyprus fishing department Conseil regional L.R. Producers (8 in France, 4 in Cyprus) Producers organisations (FEAP, SFAM, CIPA, FFA, EAS, Cyprus aquacultor organisation) Retailors (Marée Phocéenne) GMS (CASINO, METRO) Restaurant, fish shop Researchers IFREMER, IEO, Cyprus national research Veterinary services (DSV Var, Alpes Maritimes, Cyprus services) Engineering compagnies IDEE, Aqualog, BRU Consultants (2 in Cyprus)

15 Mediterranean fish culture in cage Typology of Mediterranean farms Stake holders and inquiries Selection and validation of the P. C. I. Sustainability diagnostic Conclusion and prospects

16 Global List : 17 principles 103 criteria > 200 indicators Expert selection Stakeholder selection (35 participants) 13 principles 25 criteria 45 indicators Mediterranean List : 17 principles 85 criteria 157 indicators Selection and validation of the P.C.I. 7 principles 20 criteria 30 indicators Stakeholder validation (46% of the selection group) Expert decision

17 Nature NGO WWF France, IUCN, AKTI Feed manufacturers (BIOMAR) Hatchery (PDS, SAGRO LTD) Administration Affaires maritimes PACA, Corse, Alpes Maritimes; PACA Cyprus fishing department Conseil regional Producers (8 in France, 4 in Cyprus) Producers organisations (FEAP, SFAM, CIPA, FFA, EAS, Cyprus aquacultor organisation) Retailors (Marée Phocéenne) GMS (CASINO, METRO) Restaurant, fish shop Researchers IFREMER, IEO, Cyprus national research Veterinary services (DSV Var, Alpes Maritimes, Cyprus services) Engineering compagnies 1 French Selection and validation of the P.C.I.

18 Mediterranean principles P1 Contribute to meet nutritional needs P2 Develop approaches which promote quality P3 Respect of natural resources and of environmental carrying capacity P4 Improve the ecological yield of the activity P5 Protect biodiversity and respect animal well-being P6 Increase the capacity to cope with uncertainties and crises P7 Strengthen the long term future of exploitations P8 Strengthen sectorial organisation and identity P9 Strengthen social investment of companies P10 Strengthen the role of aquaculture in local development P11 Promote participation and governance information P12 Strengthen research and sector-related information exchange P13 Strengthen the role of States and public actors in promotion of sustainable development

19 Mediterranean fish culture in cage Typology of Mediterranean farms Stake holders and inquiries Selection and validation of the P. C. I. Sustainability diagnostic Conclusion and prospects

20 Indicators and criteria 45 indicators in total (quantified): –13 of them are specific for the Mediterranean –53% for evaluation at the company level –25% for evaluation at the territory level –22% common to company and territory Sustainability analysis using criteria and principles : – Criteria (quantified using indicators) analysis : By ‘pillar’: economical, environmental, social and institutional per type of farm By type of contribution: companies or territory, per group of pillars (eco. + enviro. and socio + Instit.) and per type of farm – Principle (quantified using criteria) analysis Global analysis per type of farm

21 Economical pillar Criteria analysis - Economical pillar Large size farms are more solid than small size farms Large size farms : better supply control (P6C5) / Fry and feed prices, fry availabity Better level of awarness of pathological risks (P6C8) / Biological alarm system Better level of financial autonomy (P7C4) Small size farms : better level of value enhancement (P2C3) (niche and proximity markets) / Price differential related to local market All farms: Lack of innovation (P6C2) / mutualisation Small farms Large - open capital Large - familial capital Average

22 Environmental pillar Criteria analysis - Environmental pillar - Respect of carrying capacity (P3C6 and P3C4) because they are installed more far from the coast / Autoepuration capacity, high water velocity under cages… - Better control of the genetic pollution (P5C1) / escapees control Large size farms are more environmental friendly Small farms Large - open capital Large -familial capital Average

23 Social pillar Criteria analysis - Social pillar Small size farms : - Better access to information (P9C5) / seminar participation - Better level of contribution to local economy (P10C5) / local production, pluriactivity Large size farms are more socially sustainable on average Large size farms : larger contribution to fish availability (P1C1) All farms produce high quality healthy products (P1C4) Small farms Large - open capital Large -familial capital Average

24 Institutionnal pillar Criteria analysis - Institutionnal pillar Large farms present a better average profil Small size farms : - Better recognition of their contribution to sustainable development (P13C1) - Receive higher financial aids from administration (P13C3) / for research and formation Small farms Large - open capital Large -familial capital Average

25 Territory level Crtieria analysis – Territory level Economy and environment Large size farms are more sustainable except for the innovation / mutualisation of production factors (P6C2) Social and institutionnal Small farms are more sustainable for: - the level of contribution to the local economy (P10C5) - the level of commitment of the State towards the industry (P13C3 / financial aids for research and formation); (due to internalization of formation and R & D ) Small farms average Large farms average

26 Company level Criteria analysis – Company level Economy and environment Large size farms more sustainable except for: -The level of the innovation (P6C2) /mutualisation of production factors due to the entrepreneurial structure of production (segmentation and specialisation) - The level of value enhancement (P2C3) /price differential related to local market Social and institutionnal Small farms are more sustainable for: - The access to information (P9C5) / seminar participation - The recognition of their contribution to sustainable development (P13C1) Small farms average Large farms average

27 Principles Sustainability analysis - Principles

28 Conclusion Sustainability analysis - Conclusion Similar results of analysis based on principles / criteria : - Better global average sustainability of the large size farms - Better social investment and contribution to local economy of small size farms –Important to clearly define the entity to be considered: for instance large farms (several sites and segmented production system) internalize research and training of their employees and mutualise some of their tools, which is not considered in the evaluation of P9C5 (access to information) and P6C2 (mutualisation of the production factors) Analysis based on only 2 countries and few farms

29 Mediterranean fish culture in cage Typology of Mediterranean farms Stake holders and inquiries Selection and validation of the P. C. I. Sustainability diagnostic Conclusion and prospects

30 Powerful method taking into account all aspects of sustainability + Exhaustive representation of sustainability -Necessitates a strong involvement of all stakeholders Answer to a demand National actors Long lasting involvement

31 2- Answer a EU call aimed at defining means to improve sustainability of aquaculture (all types) in Mediterranean countries, based on: - Key partners in each countries (national multi- stakeholder platforms) - A ‘method’ core group (backup for key partners, international multi-stakeholder platforms) - A tool to monitor sustainability developments Conclusion and prospects 1- INDAM project (CGPM – CAQ), meeting next Thursday and friday

32 Thank you for your attention


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