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Anatomy of the Muscular System

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1 Anatomy of the Muscular System
Chapter 10 Anatomy of the Muscular System

2 Introduction There are over 600 muscles in the body
Muscles make up 40-50% of our weight Muscle helps to determine the form and contours of our body

3 Structure of Skeletal Muscle
Epimysium Layer of connective tissue that surrounds the entire muscle Perimysium Separates the muscle into fasicles Fasicle A group of muscle fibers Endomysium Surrounds an individual muscle fiber Tendon Connect muscle to bone

4 Structure of Skeletal Muscle
Sometimes muscles are connected to each other by broad sheets of connective tissue called aponeuroses.



7 Types of Fiber Arrangements
Parallel Fibers- run across Convergent- converge to a narrow attachment Oblique- diagonal Pennate- one feather Bipennate- two feathers Direction of fibers important for strength and range of motion

8 Fiber Arrangements

9  Skeletal Muscle Actions
A. Origin and Insertion 1. The immovable end of a muscle is the origin, while the movable end is the insertion; contraction pulls the insertion toward the origin. 2. Some muscles have more than one insertion or origin.


11 Muscle Actions Prime mover- primary muscle being moved
Antagonist- muscles that oppose the prime movers Synergist- (Syn= together Erg= work) muscles that contract along with the prime mover Fixator Muscles- joint stabilizers

12 How Muscles Are Named Direction of Muscle Fibers Location
Rectus- parallel to midline Location Temporalis near Temporal Bone Number of Origins Bicep or Tricep Point of Attachment Sternocleidomastoid muscle

13 How Muscles are Named Function Shape Adductor Abductor Flexor Exensor
Deltoid (triangular)

14 How Muscles Are Named Size Maximus Medius Minimus Longus Brevis

15 Head and Neck Muscles Two Large Categories Facial Muscles
Unique because at least one of their attachments is to the deep layers of the skin Allows for facial expression Chewing Muscles


17 Facial Muscles Frontalis Occipitalis Epicranial Aponeurosis
Covers frontal bone Raise eyebrows and wrinkle forehead Occipitalis Covers the posterior aspect of the skull and pulls the scalp back posteriorly Epicranial Aponeurosis connects the Frontalis and Occipitalis


19 Facial Muscles Obicularis Oris Obicularis Oculi
Circular muscles of the lips Closes the mouth Protrudes the lips Called the kissing muscle Obicularis Oculi Circular muscle around the eyes Allows you to close your eyes, squint, blink and wink

20 Facial Muscles Buccinator Zygomaticus
Flattens the cheek to whistle or blow trumpet Also a chewing muscle Zygomaticus Smiling muscle that raises the corners of the mouth upwards


22 Chewing Muscles Called muscles of mastication
Buccinator belongs in this group Masseter Closes jaw Temporalis Lies over the temporal bone Inserts into the mandible and acts as a synergist of the masseter in closing the jaw

23 Neck Muscles Platysma Covers the neck anterolateral


25 Neck Muscles Sternocleidomastoid Muscle Two heads of origin
Sternum and clavicle Inserts in the mastoid process of temporal bone

26 Neck Muscles Sternocleidomastoid Muscle
Both flex (angle is decreased) causes bowing of head Called the prayer muscles If only one is flexed, the head turns to the side In some difficult births, muscle can be injured and spasms develop Called torticollis or wryneck

27 Trunk Muscles Anterior Muscles Pectoralis Major Pectoralis Minor
Large fan muscle of the chest Origin- from the sternum, shoulder girdle, and first six ribs Inserts proximal end of the humerus Adducts and flexes the arm Pectoralis Minor Under the pectoralis major


29 Anterior Trunk Muscles
Intercostal Muscles Found between the ribs External Intercostals Elevates the rib cage for breathing Internal Intercostals Depresses the rib cage for breathing

30 Anterior Trunk Muscles
Diaphram Large flat muscle that separates the thoracic from the abdominal cavity

31 Muscles of the Abdominal Wall
This group of muscles connects the rib cage and vertebral column to the pelvic girdle A band of tough connective tissue, the linea alba, extending from the xiphoid process to the symphysis pubis, serves as an attachment for certain abdominal wall muscles

32 Muscles of Abdominal Wall
Rectus Abdominus Outer layer Runs from pubis to rib cage Flexes vertebral column Compresses abdominal cavity

33 Muscles of the Abdominal Wall

34 Muscles of Abdominal Wall
External Oblique Make up the lateral walls of the abdomen Flex the vertebrae Rotates the trunk Bend the trunk laterally Internal Obliques Fibers run at right angles to external oblique Transverse Abdominus Parallel fibers

35 Muscles of the Pelvic Floor
Muscles of pelvic floor support the pelvic cavity Diamond shaped outlet is called the perineum


37 Posterior Trunk Muscles
Trapezius Diamond shaped muscle of back Shrug the shoulders Hold head up Adducts the arm


39 Posterior Trunk Muscles
Latissimus Dorsi Large flat muscle of lower back Originates in lower spine Inserts at the distal end of the humerus Extends and _____ the arm


41 Posterior Trunk Muscles
Erector Spinae Deep muscles of the back Longissimus Iliocostalis Spinalis Powerful back extensors (erectors) Can go into spasms and are a common source of lower back pain

42 ADD Picture of Erector Spinae

43 Posterior Trunk Muscles
Deltoid Triangle shoulder muscle Inserts in the deltoid tuberosity of the humerus Multifunctional muscle Abducts the arm


45 Muscles of the Upper Limb
6 muscles attach arm so lots of movement 4 muscles form a cap or cuff around shoulder joint- rotator cuff Infraspinatus Supraspinatus Subscapularis Teres minor

46 Muscles That Act On The Forearm
Cause elbow flexion Biceps Brachii Two origins- scapula coracoid and superglenoid tuberosity Inserts in the radial tuberosity Supinates the forearm “It turns the corkscrew and pulls the cork”


48 Muscles That Act on the Forearm
Brachialis Lies deep to the bicep muscle and helps with flexion Brachioradialis Weak muscle in the forearm



51 Muscles That Act On The Forearm
Tricep Brachii Has three heads Is the prime mover of elbow extension Atagonist of the bicep Called the boxer’s muscle


53 Muscles that Move The Wrist, Hand, and Fingers
Are located on the forearm Many intrinsic muscles 8 separate muscles serve the thumb As a general rule, forearm names reflect their activities Flexor carpi and flexor digitorum muscles cause flexion of wrist and fingers

54 Muscles that Move the Wrist, Hand, and Fingers
1. Movements of the hand are caused by muscles originating from the distal humerus, and the radius and ulna. 2. Flexors include the flexor carpi radialis, flexor carpi ulnaris, palmaris longus, and flexor digitorum profundus. 3. Extensors include the extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor carpi ulnaris, and extensor digitorum.



57 Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Tendon sheath becomes inflamed and puts pressure on the median nerve Characterized by weakness, pain, and tingling in hand

58 Carpal Tunnel

59 Carpal Tunnel

60 Causes of Carpal Tunnel
Repetitive movements Playing piano Typing Swinging a hammer Meat cutters Quilting, cross-stitch, handicrafts Some factory work

61 Carpal Tunnel Treatment
Can be relieved with anti-inflammatory injections Can wear braces to help Use specially designed keyboards

62 Carpal Tunnel Treatment
Permanent cure is surgical cutting or removing swollen tissue pressing on nerve Will come back if you continue to do the same tasks that caused it.

63 Carpal Tunnel Treatment

64 Muscles Of The Lower Limb
Among the strongest muscles in the body Because pelvic girdle is composed of heavy, fused bone that allow little movement, no special group of muscles is necessary to stabilize it Muscle that move leg form the flesh of the thigh Muscles originating on leg move the ankle and foot

65 Muscles Causing Movement At The Hip
Gluteus Maximus Forms most of the buttocks Gluteus Medius Is a hip abductor Beneath the gluteus maximus Gluteus Minimus Under the gluteus medius


67 Muscles Causing Movement At The Hip
Iliopsoas Formed by iliacus and psoas major Runs from iliac crest to insert on greater trochanter of the femur Prime mover of hip flexion

68 Iliopsoas


70 Adductor Muscles Form the medial side of each thigh
Since gravity does most of the work for them, special exercises are usually needed to keep them toned Adductor Longus Adductor Magnus gracilis


72 Muscles Causing Movement At The Knee Joint
Hamstring Group Posterior Thigh Muscles Consists of three muscles Bicep femoris- lateral Semembraneous-medial Semitendinous- between these two Flexes the leg Butchers used to use their tendons to hang hams from for smoking


74 Muscles Causing Movement At The Knee Joint
Sartorius Thin straplike muscle Most superficial of thigh muscles Runs oblique across the thigh Called “tailor’s muscle” since it is a synergist in the crossed-leg position


76 Muscles Causing Movement At The Knee Joint
Quadriceps Rectus Femoris Vastus Lateralis Vastus Medialis Vastus Intermedius All 4 muscles insert into the tibial tuberosity of the patellar ligament


78 Muscles Causing Movement At The Knee Joint
Quadriceps act to extend the knee powerfully

79 Muscles Causing Movement At The Ankle And Foot
Tibialis Anterior Dorsiflexes and inverts the foot Inflammation of this muscle is the cause of shin splints Extensor Digitorium Longus Lateral to the tibialis anterior Prime mover of toe extention and dorsiflexor of the foot


81 Muscles Causing Movement At The Ankle and Foot
Fibularis Muscles- found on lateral part of leg Longus Brevis Tertius Plantar flexes and everts the foot Soleus

82 Muscles Causing Movement At The Ankle and Foot
Gastrocnemius Bulging calf muscle Connects to the heal (calcaneus) by the Achilles tendon Plantar flexes the foot Called the “toe dancer’s muscle”




86 Intramuscular Injection
Allows the Dr. to inject a large amount of the drug at one time yet have it enter the circulation gradually 5 ml or less- deltoid More than 5 ml- gluteus medius Vastus lateralis in children

87 Placement of Intramuscular Injections
Important to avoid the sciatic nerve

88 Intramuscular Injection Sites
Figure 6.18, 6.19b, d

89 R.I.C.E. Treatment For Injuries
Rest Ice On for 15 min. off for 20 min. Compression Limits swelling Elevation Reduces swelling Should be above level of heart Referral

90 Effect of Exercise On Muscle
Muscle burns calories at three times the rate of fat Lean body is more energetically efficient Aerobic or endurance exercises result in stronger, more flexible muscles with greater resistance to fatigue Resistance or isometric exercises increase muscle size and strength

91 Weight Training and Muscles
Trapezius Pectorals Abdominals Rectus abdominus v. obliques Latissimus Dorsi Erector Spinae Deltoid

92 Weight Training and Muscles
Rotator Cuff Biceps Triceps Flexor and extensor muscles of forearm Gluteal Muscles Adductor Thigh Muscles Hamstring Group

93 Weight Training and Muscles
Rotator Cuff Biceps Triceps Flexor and extensor muscles of forearm Gluteal Muscles Adductor Thigh Muscles Hamstring Group

94 Weight Training and Muscles
Quadriceps Gastrocnemius

95 Weight Training and Muscles
Does the order of your weight training exercises matter? Yes, lift major muscle groups first and then small ones The small groups tire more easily and may affect your ability to do the large groups if they are tired.

96 Anabolic Steroids Synthetically produced versions of male sex hormone testosterone Banned by international athletic competitions Advantages Increased muscle mass and strength Increased oxygen carrying capacity of blood Increased aggressive behavior

97 Anabolic Steroids Complications Bloated faces
Shriveled testes and infertility Damage to liver and liver cancer Increased blood cholesterol Increased risk of heart disease Roid rage Withdrawal symptoms similar to heroine Reduced production of natural testosterone

98 Massage Therapy Lots of skill involved
Can help recover from injuries and prevent further problems Training varies greatly All programs require understanding of anatomy and physiology Look for an accredited program of the American Massage Therapy Association.

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