Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

1 Chapter 10 Anatomy of the Muscular System. Introduction  There are over 600 muscles in the body  Muscles make up 40-50% of our weight  Muscle helps.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "1 Chapter 10 Anatomy of the Muscular System. Introduction  There are over 600 muscles in the body  Muscles make up 40-50% of our weight  Muscle helps."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Chapter 10 Anatomy of the Muscular System

2 Introduction  There are over 600 muscles in the body  Muscles make up 40-50% of our weight  Muscle helps to determine the form and contours of our body 2

3 Structure of Skeletal Muscle  Epimysium  Layer of connective tissue that surrounds the entire muscle  Perimysium  Separates the muscle into fasicles  Fasicle  A group of muscle fibers  Endomysium  Surrounds an individual muscle fiber  Tendon  Connect muscle to bone 3

4 Structure of Skeletal Muscle Sometimes muscles are connected to each other by broad sheets of connective tissue called aponeuroses. 4

5

6 6

7 Types of Fiber Arrangements Parallel Fibers- run across Convergent- converge to a narrow attachment Oblique- diagonal –Pennate- one feather –Bipennate- two feathers Direction of fibers important for strength and range of motion 7

8 Fiber Arrangements

9  Skeletal Muscle Actions A.Origin and Insertion 1.The immovable end of a muscle is the origin, while the movable end is the insertion; contraction pulls the insertion toward the origin. 2.Some muscles have more than one insertion or origin.

10 10

11 Muscle Actions Prime mover- primary muscle being moved Antagonist- muscles that oppose the prime movers Synergist- (Syn= together Erg= work) muscles that contract along with the prime mover Fixator Muscles- joint stabilizers 11

12 How Muscles Are Named Direction of Muscle Fibers –Rectus- parallel to midline Location –Temporalis near Temporal Bone Number of Origins –Bicep or Tricep Point of Attachment –Sternocleidomastoid muscle 12

13 How Muscles are Named Function –Adductor –Abductor –Flexor –Exensor Shape –Deltoid (triangular) 13

14 How Muscles Are Named Size –Maximus –Medius –Minimus –Longus –Brevis 14

15 Head and Neck Muscles Two Large Categories –Facial Muscles Unique because at least one of their attachments is to the deep layers of the skin Allows for facial expression –Chewing Muscles 15

16 16

17 Facial Muscles Frontalis –Covers frontal bone –Raise eyebrows and wrinkle forehead Occipitalis –Covers the posterior aspect of the skull and pulls the scalp back posteriorly Epicranial Aponeurosis –connects the Frontalis and Occipitalis 17

18 18

19 Facial Muscles Obicularis Oris –Circular muscles of the lips –Closes the mouth –Protrudes the lips –Called the kissing muscle Obicularis Oculi –Circular muscle around the eyes –Allows you to close your eyes, squint, blink and wink 19

20 Facial Muscles Buccinator –Flattens the cheek to whistle or blow trumpet –Also a chewing muscle Zygomaticus –Smiling muscle that raises the corners of the mouth upwards 20

21 21

22 Chewing Muscles Called muscles of mastication Buccinator belongs in this group Masseter –Closes jaw Temporalis –Lies over the temporal bone –Inserts into the mandible and acts as a synergist of the masseter in closing the jaw 22

23 Neck Muscles Platysma –Covers the neck anterolateral 23

24 24

25 Neck Muscles Sternocleidomastoid Muscle –Two heads of origin Sternum and clavicle –Inserts in the mastoid process of temporal bone 25

26 Neck Muscles Sternocleidomastoid Muscle –Both flex (angle is decreased) causes bowing of head Called the prayer muscles –If only one is flexed, the head turns to the side In some difficult births, muscle can be injured and spasms develop –Called torticollis or wryneck 26

27 Trunk Muscles Anterior Muscles –Pectoralis Major Large fan muscle of the chest Origin- from the sternum, shoulder girdle, and first six ribs Inserts proximal end of the humerus Adducts and flexes the arm –Pectoralis Minor Under the pectoralis major 27

28 28

29 Anterior Trunk Muscles Intercostal Muscles –Found between the ribs External Intercostals –Elevates the rib cage for breathing Internal Intercostals –Depresses the rib cage for breathing 29

30 Anterior Trunk Muscles Diaphram –Large flat muscle that separates the thoracic from the abdominal cavity 30

31 Muscles of the Abdominal Wall This group of muscles connects the rib cage and vertebral column to the pelvic girdle A band of tough connective tissue, the linea alba, extending from the xiphoid process to the symphysis pubis, serves as an attachment for certain abdominal wall muscles 31

32 Muscles of Abdominal Wall Rectus Abdominus Outer layer Runs from pubis to rib cage Flexes vertebral column Compresses abdominal cavity

33 Muscles of the Abdominal Wall 33

34 Muscles of Abdominal Wall External Oblique –Make up the lateral walls of the abdomen –Flex the vertebrae –Rotates the trunk –Bend the trunk laterally Internal Obliques –Fibers run at right angles to external oblique Transverse Abdominus –Parallel fibers

35 Muscles of the Pelvic Floor Muscles of pelvic floor support the pelvic cavity Diamond shaped outlet is called the perineum 35

36 36

37 Posterior Trunk Muscles Trapezius –Diamond shaped muscle of back –Shrug the shoulders –Hold head up –Adducts the arm 37

38 38

39 Posterior Trunk Muscles Latissimus Dorsi –Large flat muscle of lower back –Originates in lower spine –Inserts at the distal end of the humerus –Extends and _____ the arm 39

40 40

41 Posterior Trunk Muscles Erector Spinae –Deep muscles of the back Longissimus Iliocostalis Spinalis –Powerful back extensors (erectors) –Can go into spasms and are a common source of lower back pain 41

42 ADD Picture of Erector Spinae 42

43 Posterior Trunk Muscles Deltoid –Triangle shoulder muscle –Inserts in the deltoid tuberosity of the humerus –Multifunctional muscle –Abducts the arm 43

44 44

45 Muscles of the Upper Limb 6 muscles attach arm so lots of movement 4 muscles form a cap or cuff around shoulder joint- rotator cuff –Infraspinatus –Supraspinatus –Subscapularis –Teres minor

46 Muscles That Act On The Forearm Cause elbow flexion Biceps Brachii –Two origins- scapula coracoid and superglenoid tuberosity –Inserts in the radial tuberosity –Supinates the forearm –“It turns the corkscrew and pulls the cork” 46

47 47

48 Muscles That Act on the Forearm Brachialis –Lies deep to the bicep muscle and helps with flexion Brachioradialis –Weak muscle in the forearm 48

49 49

50 50

51 Muscles That Act On The Forearm Tricep Brachii –Has three heads –Is the prime mover of elbow extension –Atagonist of the bicep –Called the boxer’s muscle 51

52 52

53 Muscles that Move The Wrist, Hand, and Fingers Are located on the forearm Many intrinsic muscles –8 separate muscles serve the thumb As a general rule, forearm names reflect their activities –Flexor carpi and flexor digitorum muscles cause flexion of wrist and fingers 53

54 54 Muscles that Move the Wrist, Hand, and Fingers 1.Movements of the hand are caused by muscles originating from the distal humerus, and the radius and ulna. 2.Flexors include the flexor carpi radialis, flexor carpi ulnaris, palmaris longus, and flexor digitorum profundus. 3.Extensors include the extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor carpi ulnaris, and extensor digitorum.

55 55

56 56

57 Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Tendon sheath becomes inflamed and puts pressure on the median nerve Characterized by weakness, pain, and tingling in hand 57

58 Carpal Tunnel 58

59 Carpal Tunnel 59

60 Causes of Carpal Tunnel Repetitive movements –Playing piano –Typing –Swinging a hammer –Meat cutters –Quilting, cross-stitch, handicrafts –Some factory work 60

61 Carpal Tunnel Treatment Can be relieved with anti-inflammatory injections Can wear braces to help Use specially designed keyboards 61

62 Carpal Tunnel Treatment Permanent cure is surgical cutting or removing swollen tissue pressing on nerve Will come back if you continue to do the same tasks that caused it. 62

63 Carpal Tunnel Treatment 63

64 Muscles Of The Lower Limb Among the strongest muscles in the body Because pelvic girdle is composed of heavy, fused bone that allow little movement, no special group of muscles is necessary to stabilize it Muscle that move leg form the flesh of the thigh Muscles originating on leg move the ankle and foot 64

65 Muscles Causing Movement At The Hip Gluteus Maximus –Forms most of the buttocks Gluteus Medius –Is a hip abductor –Beneath the gluteus maximus Gluteus Minimus –Under the gluteus medius 65

66 66

67 Muscles Causing Movement At The Hip Iliopsoas –Formed by iliacus and psoas major –Runs from iliac crest to insert on greater trochanter of the femur –Prime mover of hip flexion 67

68 Iliopsoas 68

69 69

70 Adductor Muscles Form the medial side of each thigh Since gravity does most of the work for them, special exercises are usually needed to keep them toned –Adductor Longus –Adductor Magnus –gracilis 70

71 71

72 Muscles Causing Movement At The Knee Joint Hamstring Group –Posterior Thigh Muscles –Consists of three muscles Bicep femoris- lateral Semembraneous-medial Semitendinous- between these two –Flexes the leg –Butchers used to use their tendons to hang hams from for smoking 72

73 73

74 Muscles Causing Movement At The Knee Joint Sartorius –Thin straplike muscle Most superficial of thigh muscles Runs oblique across the thigh Called “tailor’s muscle” since it is a synergist in the crossed-leg position 74

75 75

76 Muscles Causing Movement At The Knee Joint Quadriceps –Rectus Femoris –Vastus Lateralis –Vastus Medialis –Vastus Intermedius All 4 muscles insert into the tibial tuberosity of the patellar ligament 76

77 77

78 Muscles Causing Movement At The Knee Joint Quadriceps act to extend the knee powerfully 78

79 Muscles Causing Movement At The Ankle And Foot Tibialis Anterior –Dorsiflexes and inverts the foot –Inflammation of this muscle is the cause of shin splints Extensor Digitorium Longus –Lateral to the tibialis anterior –Prime mover of toe extention and dorsiflexor of the foot 79

80 80

81 Muscles Causing Movement At The Ankle and Foot Fibularis Muscles- found on lateral part of leg –Longus –Brevis –Tertius –Plantar flexes and everts the foot Soleus 81

82 Muscles Causing Movement At The Ankle and Foot Gastrocnemius –Bulging calf muscle –Connects to the heal (calcaneus) by the Achilles tendon –Plantar flexes the foot –Called the “toe dancer’s muscle” 82

83 83

84 84

85 85

86 Intramuscular Injection Allows the Dr. to inject a large amount of the drug at one time yet have it enter the circulation gradually 5 ml or less- deltoid More than 5 ml- gluteus medius Vastus lateralis in children 86

87 Placement of Intramuscular Injections Important to avoid the sciatic nerve 87

88 Intramuscular Injection Sites Figure 6.18, 6.19b, d

89 R.I.C.E. Treatment For Injuries Rest Ice –On for 15 min. off for 20 min. Compression –Limits swelling Elevation –Reduces swelling –Should be above level of heart Referral 89

90 Effect of Exercise On Muscle Muscle burns calories at three times the rate of fat –Lean body is more energetically efficient Aerobic or endurance exercises result in stronger, more flexible muscles with greater resistance to fatigue Resistance or isometric exercises increase muscle size and strength 90

91 Weight Training and Muscles Trapezius Pectorals Abdominals –Rectus abdominus v. obliques Latissimus Dorsi Erector Spinae Deltoid 91

92 Weight Training and Muscles Rotator Cuff Biceps Triceps Flexor and extensor muscles of forearm Gluteal Muscles Adductor Thigh Muscles Hamstring Group 92

93 Weight Training and Muscles Rotator Cuff Biceps Triceps Flexor and extensor muscles of forearm Gluteal Muscles Adductor Thigh Muscles Hamstring Group 93

94 Weight Training and Muscles Quadriceps Gastrocnemius 94

95 Weight Training and Muscles Does the order of your weight training exercises matter? Yes, lift major muscle groups first and then small ones The small groups tire more easily and may affect your ability to do the large groups if they are tired. 95

96 Anabolic Steroids Synthetically produced versions of male sex hormone testosterone Banned by international athletic competitions Advantages –Increased muscle mass and strength –Increased oxygen carrying capacity of blood –Increased aggressive behavior 96

97 Anabolic Steroids Complications –Bloated faces –Shriveled testes and infertility –Damage to liver and liver cancer –Increased blood cholesterol –Increased risk of heart disease –Roid rage –Withdrawal symptoms similar to heroine –Reduced production of natural testosterone 97

98 Massage Therapy Lots of skill involved Can help recover from injuries and prevent further problems Training varies greatly All programs require understanding of anatomy and physiology Look for an accredited program of the American Massage Therapy Association. 98


Download ppt "1 Chapter 10 Anatomy of the Muscular System. Introduction  There are over 600 muscles in the body  Muscles make up 40-50% of our weight  Muscle helps."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google