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Solutions and Water Structure. Properties of solutions Water microstructure Solute microstructure –Ionic solutes –Polar solutes –Nonpolar solutes (the.

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Presentation on theme: "Solutions and Water Structure. Properties of solutions Water microstructure Solute microstructure –Ionic solutes –Polar solutes –Nonpolar solutes (the."— Presentation transcript:

1 Solutions and Water Structure

2 Properties of solutions Water microstructure Solute microstructure –Ionic solutes –Polar solutes –Nonpolar solutes (the hydrophobic effect)

3

4 Acid base equilibria AHA - + H + B + H + BH +

5 Henderson Hasselbach AHA - + H +

6 AHA - + H +

7 Monosodium glutamate pK=1.88 pK=9.6 pK=3.6 Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a flavor enhancer. It is most active over the pH range 6-8 and decreases at lower values.

8 Soy protein solubility

9 Water Structure Molecular structure Supramolecular structure Solutes –Ionic –Polar –Nonpolar (the hydrophobic effect)

10 Water Molecular Structure H O H 104° ~1 A

11 The Hydrogen Bond (http://www.martin.chaplin.btinternet.co.uk/molecule.html)http://www.martin.chaplin.btinternet.co.uk/molecule.html

12 Tetrahedral Structure of Water The lone pairs and bonding electrons repel one another The OH bonds are highly polarized Strong H-bonds (~10% of covalent bond) Each water molecule can hydrogen bond to two neighbors allowing the formation of an extensive 3D structure /Media_Portfolio/Chapter_08/FG08_13.JP Ghttp://wps.prenhall.com/wps/media/objects/439/ /Media_Portfolio/Chapter_08/FG08_13.JP G

13 Supramolecular Structure of Water Water is highly hydrogen bonded (only about 15% of H-bonds break on melting ice) The bonds form and break dynamically Strong affinity of water for itself High specific heat (to warm water must break some H-bonds)

14 H O H H O H H O H H O H H O H H O H H O H H O H H O H Ionic Solutes Ion-dipole interactions

15 Ionic Solutes H O H H O H H O H H O H H O H H O H H O H

16 Polar Solutes Hydrogen bonds Dipole-dipole attractions

17 Thermodynamics of Binding  G=  H-T  S Entropy cost to solvent (  S 0) STRONG Enthalpy gain to solvent (  H<0) Net  G<0; reaction proceeds

18 Non-polar Solutes OIL H O H H O H H O H H O H H O H H O H

19 Non Polar Solutes Weak transcient dipole (Van der Waals attraction) Strong structuring of water into a hydrogen bonded clathrate cage – entropy cost

20 The Hydrophobic Effect Same number of oil molecules Less surface oil molecules Fewer order “clathrate cage” water molecules  G<0, droplets tend to merge

21 Small Molecule Surfactants Hydrophilic head group (charged or polar) Hydrophobic tail (non-polar) Micelles and membranes Surface activity

22 Amphiphilic Polymers Spontaneous folding Surface activity Polymer backbone Sequence of less water soluble subunits Sequence of more water soluble subunits


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